Bibliography: Torture (page 8 of 9)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Positive Universe: On Torture website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Becky Purbrick, Robert J. Nossen, Susan C. Peterson, Everett M. Ressler, Susan Peck MacDonald, Kay Castelle, Edvard Hauff, Thomas Newkirk, Stanley Nyirenda, and Nancy Seale Osborne.

Hauff, Edvard (1988). International Aspects of Mental Health Work with Refugees and Future Directions: A European Perspective. This paper describes past and present European efforts to address the mental health needs of refugees. It begins with a brief historical survey of mental health services for refugees after the Second World War and delineates the policy recommendations from the 1948 International Congress on Mental Health. The next section describes current programs in Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Germany. Following this, special programs in Copenhagen, Stockholm, London, and Oxford for refugees who have been exposed to torture are described. Recent international conferences in Europe involving representatives of the various medical and psychosocial centers for refugees in Europe are next described, along with documentation centers and networks and international journals on refugee issues based in Europe. Future directions are outlined for mental health work with refugees: briefly discussed are research and training needs, international networking, new journals, and planned conferences. The paper concludes with a call for greater cooperation between refugee mental health programs in Europe and North America with those in Third World countries. [More] Descriptors: Conferences, European History, Foreign Countries, International Programs

MacDonald, Susan Peck (1982). "Can I Write About My Life?" The Research Paper and the Inexperienced Writer. Inexperienced writers can become inspired researchers when they are allowed and encouraged to write about what matters to them. The traditional research paper assignment inflicts torture on students in two ways: (1) by the process it demands–basically a frenzied series of new learning tasks; and (2) by the mystery surrounding its codes–rarely do students know why certain procedures and conventions are important or even who their real audience is. Work with two sets of students in university level Educational Opportunities Program (EOP) rhetoric classes bears out these observations. One set of students worked on research topics triggered by personal experience, most often problems related to their minority backgrounds. The other set worked on topics developed through a more traditional, impersonal approach to the research paper, but even some of these students managed to create more interesting papers by injecting some elements of their personalities into the process. The experience of these students seems to indicate that inexperienced writers can discover for themselves the true process of academic research if they are allowed to bring personal commitment–and therefore a true purpose and sense of audience–to their work. [More] Descriptors: Higher Education, Instructional Improvement, Minority Groups, Nontraditional Students

Nossen, Robert J., Ed. (1984). PAACE-SETTER. Volume 1, Number 1, PAACE-SETTER. The bulk of this issue consists of five articles providing insight into various phases of adult continuing education. "The Meliorist Position as a Philosophic Base for Adult Education" (Gordon Clay Godbey) examines these questions about meliorism: should we accept as natural improvement of the human condition, the constant wars, the hunger, the great extremes of wealth, the torture? and should there not be a greater idealism beyond the practice of adult education? Phyllis A. Dobson and Eileen E. Clancy point out in "Help for the Unemployed–Continuing Education" an extension from working with the disadvantaged, long the province of adult educators, to working with the displaced worker. "Adult Basic Education in Leningrad" (Susan Sparks Schuehler) considers how a Communist nation evaluates its mission in providing learning opportunities for adults. "Feasibility of Requiring and Delivering Certification for ABE Teachers in Pennsylvania" (Judith L. Cope) examines the rationale for certification. In "CLEP–An Indicator of Academic Achievement" Renee Smith Clark describes one community college's experience with CLEP (College-Level Examination Program). The Potpourri section contains brief items on defining literacy (Linda Brodkey), the rationale of adult education (Gordon Clay Godbey), "computerphobia" of adult educators (David L. Kantner), the adult external degree program (Jacquie Douglass and Mary C. Crawford), and a perspective for the Pennsylvania Association for Adult Continuing Education through 1983-84 (Barbara E. Hanniford). Descriptors: Adult Basic Education, Adult Education, Adult Educators, Adult Literacy

Brewton, Butler E. (1978). Richard Wright's Thematic Treatment of Women in "Uncle Tom's Children,""Black Boy," and "Native Son.". Richard Wright's literary work emphasizes a contrast between black women and white women. Although both are "givers" to black boys, the nature of what they give is different. The black woman gives physical life, feeds it, and protects it at the expense of spiritual or creative vitality. Her goal is to survive bodily, to breathe, to have enough strength to endure the physical deprivations of being black. The black woman mothers a people dead of spirit but alive with physical capability; she does this through counsel, religion, example, and, if these fail, physical torture. Young black girls learn this pattern from older black girls and the conditioning becomes a "mothering" of humans lacking in personal initiative and creative drive. In contrast to the black women in Wright's works, the white women are unconcerned with the physical survival of black boys. Instead, white women coax black boys out of the mothering syndrome and into the "mommism" syndrome, enticing Wright's black boy characters toward a life of the spirit at the expense of physical death. With this contrast between the physical and the spiritual, Wright points out the evils of racist, classist societies that fragment the self and force black men into unfair, unnecessary choices between physical life and spiritual meaning. Descriptors: Black Culture, Black Literature, Black Mothers, Characterization

Purbrick, Becky, Ed. (1996). Child Rights Information Network Newsletter, 1996, Child Rights Information Network Newsletter. These two newsletter issues communicate activities of the newly formed Child Rights Information Network (CRIN) and report on emerging information resources and activities concerning children and child rights. The January 1996 issue describes the history of CRIN, provides updates on the activities of projects linked to CRIN, and summarizes discussion at the October 1995 meeting of the Facilitating Group (the group of organizations overseeing the development of CRIN). In addition, this issue reviews four children's rights newsletters, announces new information resources (Children's House on the Internet and Radda Barnen's Child Soldiers database), and features profiles of the following CRIN members and their activities: (1) Arab Resource Collection (Sherene Seikaly); (2) Child Workers in Asia (Taneeya Runcharoen); (3) Defence for Children International; and (4) Radda Barnen (Karin Rydberg). Also included is a questionnaire for organizations for inclusion in the CRIN database. The July 1996 issue provides updates on CRIN's activities, especially expansion into southern nations; the Internet project; and the organization's database. The activities of Children's House in Cyberspace, Childnet International, and SOS Torture are also described. Additionally, this issue describes a proposal for a new convention on child labor, presents information on upcoming meetings, and profiles the following CRIN members: (1) AMAL, Friends of Children Society, Sudan; (2) Concerned for Working Children, India; (3) Foundation for the Protection of Infancy Damaged by States of Emergency (PIDEE), Chile; and (4) Save the Children, UK. [More] Descriptors: Child Labor, Child Welfare, Children, Childrens Rights

Peterson, Susan C.; And Others (1988). An Annotated Bibliography on Refugee Mental Health. Volume II. The second volume of this annotated bibliography contains primarily materials in published scientific literature on refugee mental health. References have been grouped into five major sections. Section 1, Understanding Refugees in Context, provides important background material in five categories: cultural and related information about different refugee or ethnic groups; research on refugee experience and behavior; policy issues; physical health and medical care of refugees; and assimilation, acculturation, and adaptation. Section 2, Specific Mental Health Issues and Refugees, lists resources in the following categories: typical or common mental health problems, disorders, or issues for refugees; assessment and diagnosis; needs assessment; treatment; prevention, promotion, and outreach; mental health service delivery; and training issues and professional development. Section 3, Concerns of Selected Subgroups of Refugees, provides references on the specific issues and needs of children and adolescents, women, and the elderly, along with references describing kinship issues facing refugee families in their country of resettlement. It also contains a category of references on refugees who have been victimized by torture, terror, concentration camps, and/or rape. Section 4, Other Bibliographies on Refugees and Related Topics, includes both published and unpublished bibliographies. Section 5, Language, consists of references in the following areas: issues in education and bilingual education; interpretation; and language and language concerns. Three indices are included, organized by refugee/ethic group, author, and subject. Descriptors: Acculturation, Bilingual Education, Child Welfare, Counselor Training

Nurkse, Dennis, Ed.; Castelle, Kay, Ed. (1990). Children's Rights: Crisis and Challenge. A Global Report on the Situation of Children in View of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. The global situation of children is reported in light of the U.N. General Assembly's November, 1989 adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, an international treaty for the protection of children. The report is divided into three parts, the first of which includes an overview of the U.N. Convention, and essays on the debt crisis and its effect on children; children and human rights in the 1990s; and children's rights advocate Janusz Korczak. Part 2 presents excerpts from international law, including the U.N. Declaration of the Rights of the Child; Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction; Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice; and principles related to foster placement and adoption. The third and by far the longest part of the document consists of a series of database abstracts organized in the following categories: abuse; adoption; armed conflict; child labor; detention; disappearance; discrimination; education; environment; family; freedom of expression; health; homeless and abandoned; housing; hunger; juvenile justice; narcotics; political protest, repression, and violence; pornography; prostitution; poverty; refugees; torture; and trafficking. Three appendices contain an index by geography, a list of countries by region, and database sources. Descriptors: Abstracts, Child Advocacy, Child Health, Child Welfare

Ressler, Everett M.; And Others (1993). Children in War: A Guide to the Provision of Services. A Study for UNICEF. The sad reality of children killed, tortured, imprisoned, and orphaned by war substantiates the need for renewed local, national, and international commitment to these children. This guide examines: (1) the impacts present-day armed conflicts have on children and their families; (2) what special needs of children should be anticipated and monitored; (3) which children in what circumstances are likely to have special needs that may require intervention; (4) what principles of program response might be expected; (5) what program strategies are being adopted around the world to meet children's needs; and (6) what literature and special resources are available to service providers. The first part of the book opens with a discussion of armed conflict, essential to comprehending the needs of children in these situations and to finding ways to assure their well-being. A photo essay then offers a forceful statement of how conflict affects children. The next chapter provides a conceptual framework for addressing war's negative effects on children. Six chapters in the second part of the book consider different impacts of conflict on children and what is being done to counter these impacts. The topics covered are: (1) loss of life; (2) injury, illness, malnutrition, and disability; (3) torture, abuse, imprisonment, and recruitment; (4) unaccompanied children; (5) psychosocial distress; and (6) educational disruption. The guide contains chapter references and a selected bibliography of over 1,000 items related to the provision of services to children in situations of armed conflict. Descriptors: Child Abuse, Child Health, Child Safety, Child Welfare

Williams, Carolyn L. (1986). An Annotated Bibliography on Refugee Mental Health. Volume I. This annotated bibliography, spanning a number of relevant disciplines, contains primarily materials in published scientific literature on refugee mental health. References have been grouped into four major sections. Section 1, Understanding Refugees in Context, provides important background material in five categories: cultural and related information about different refugee or ethnic groups; research on refugee experience and behavior; policy issues; physical health and medical care of refugees; and assimilation, acculturation, and adaptation. Section 2, Specific Mental Health Issues and Refugees, lists resources in the following categories: typical or common mental health problems, disorders, or issues for refugees; assessment and diagnosis; needs assessment; treatment; prevention, promotion, and outreach; mental health service delivery; and training issues and professional development. Section 3, Concerns of Selected Subgroups of Refugees, provides references on the specific issues and needs of children and adolescents, women, and the elderly, along with references describing kinship issues facing refugee families in their country of resettlement. It also contains a category of references on refugees who have been victimized by torture, terror, concentration camps, and/or rape. Section 4, Other Bibliographies on Refugees and Related Topics, includes both published and unpublished bibliographies. A user's guide to the bibliography is included, along with three indices, organized by refugee/ethic group, author, and subject. Descriptors: Acculturation, Child Welfare, Counselor Training, Cross Cultural Studies

Newkirk, Thomas (1979). Why Students Find Writing to be Torture. Five pressures make writing difficult for freshman composition students: the pressure of perfectionism, the pressure of interesting an audience, the pressure of length, the pressure of finding an appropriate topic, and the pressure of time. Teachers can help students deal with these pressures through individual conferences with each student and by allowing them to experiment and fail without being inhibited by fear of a poor grade, by permitting them to choose their own topics, by allowing them to discontinue work on a piece that is going nowhere, and by assisting them in revising and perfecting without fear of premature evaluation. Descriptors: College Freshmen, Communication Problems, English Instruction, Higher Education

Nyirenda, Stanley (1995). From Ministry of Education and Culture to Ministry of Dedication and Torture: A Top-Down Approach to the Implemenation of Secondary School Improvement Policy in Malawi. Dedication and Torture. Over time, a policy can be modified and its implementation may take a form different than originally intended by policymakers. This paper presents findings of a case study that examined the implementation of a comprehensive education plan for improving secondary education using systems technology in Malawi. Data were gathered through document analysis, a survey of 36 Ministry of Education and Culture (MOEC) administrators and 240 school-level administrators, and interviews with 10 policymakers. It is argued that the MOEC's use of a bureaucratic model to implement a complex policy and its failure to include teachers and building-level administrators in decision making resulted in partial implementation, especially of those aspects aimed at achieving qualitative improvement. School principals/headmasters and teachers reported that they wanted to do a good job, but did not receive adequate information about the system changes they were expected to implement. The findings demonstrate the importance of providing meaningful involvement to all people expected to implement educational policy. A feeling of ownership is required for the development of commitment. Many teachers felt so marginalized by a strong central bureaucracy that they suggested a more appropriate name for the MOEC–the "Ministry of Dedication and Torture," implying that although the Ministry expected dedication from teachers, it failed to treat them as professionals. Changes are recommended to: (1) include headmasters and teachers in the policymaking process; (2) allocate realistic financial resources for implementation; (3) provide adequate training for those who will implement the policy; and (4) invest in clear communication between the central government and school-level educators. Sixteen tables are included. Descriptors: Administrative Organization, Bureaucracy, Educational Improvement, Foreign Countries

Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others (1995). Mental Health, Racism, and Sexism. This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions include: (1) "Connections between Racism and Mental Health" (Castellano B. Turner and Bernard M. Kramer); (2) "Sexism and Women's Psychological Status" (Patricia Perri Rieker and M. Kay Jankowski); (3) "The Decline of Public Mental Health in the United States" (Elaine R. Brooks, Maria Zuniga, and Nolan E. Penn); (4) "Racial, Ethnic, and Mental Illness Stereotypes: Cognitive Process and Behavioral Effects" (John Townsend); (5) "Racism and African American Adolescent Development" (James P. Comer); (6) "Transracial Adoptions" (Joyce A. Ladner and Ruby M. Gourdine); (7) "Teenage Motherhood" (Constance Willard Williams); (8) "Inner-City Community Mental Health: The Interplay of Abuse and Race in Chronically Mentally Ill Women" (Elaine (Hilberman) Carmen); (9) "Lives in Jeopardy: Women and Homelessness" (Ellen L. Bassuk); (10) "Turbulence on the College Campus and the Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis" (Charles Vert Willie and Jayminn Sulir Sanford); (11) "Stress Analogs of Racism and Sexism: Terrorism, Torture, and Disaster" (Chester M. Pierce); (12) "Sex and Gender as Critical Variables in Psychotropic Drug Research" (Jean A. Hamilton); (13) "Training for Culturally Appropriate Mental Health Services" (Harriet P. Lefley and Evalina W. Bestman); (14) "Women's Mental Health: Research Agenda for the Twenty-first Century" (Nancy Felipe Russo); and (15) "A Brief History of the Center for Minority Group Mental Health Programs at the National Institute of Mental Health" (Bertram S. Brown and K. Patrick Okura). References follow each chapter. (Contains 27 figures and 10 tables.) Descriptors: Drug Therapy, Ethnic Groups, Homeless People, Mental Health

Knutson, Debra S. (1991). Planbox Escalation: A Method of Improving Students' Critical Reading Skills. Planbox escalation is a linguistic method of analyzing narrative arguments. This persuasive procedure consists of 12 strategies: (1) begin with information that all sides can agree on; (2) prepare to respond by rejecting outright, questioning, ignoring or replacing the audience's opinions; (3) make the subject as attractive as possible; (4) qualify statements instead of forcing the audience; (5) emphasize statements that the audience can agree on, but reject opposing arguments; (6) question the opponents understanding of the topic if they have points which are legitimate; (7) avoid pushing beliefs which the audience finds unacceptable, but also avoid committing to the opponents' beliefs; (8) make it clear that the views presented are the result of careful thought; (9) encourage a compromise, but make it seem as though the other side is desperate for the compromise; (10) avoid being too insistent until confident that the audience has been swayed; (11) use secondary sources to support opinions, even those that disagree–provided that their arguments are clearly flawed; and (12) make the "call to action" simple so that the audience does not think it will need to contribute a great deal of time, money, or energy. The passage from "Tom Sawyer" in which Tom persuades his friends to whitewash the fence for him, Plato's "Phaedrus," and M. Levin's "A Case for Torture" are good examples of planbox escalation. This method can help students analyze articles they may otherwise be unable to read critically. It can also guide them in their writing, helping them to refute opposing positions with more sophisticated arguments. Descriptors: Audience Awareness, Critical Reading, Critical Thinking, Discourse Analysis

Osborne, Nancy Seale (1990). College Orientation: Three Themes from Alice Walker's "The Color Purple.". These four papers by a reference librarian discuss the potential for students at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Oswego to engage in a positive academic career that will have a significant impact not only on their growth as people, but also on their future endeavors. The first paper, "Self-Definition: Naming Yourself in a College Environment," explores the diversity of campus activities, and encourages students to become involved in some of them to continue their self-development as well as to make connections with other people. The second paper, "Education and 'The Color Purple'; 'No matter what happen, Nettie steady try to teach me what go on in the world,'" describes two people who had a major influence on the speaker as a young girl, and mentions some of the people at SUNY Oswego–e.g., roommates, friends, professors, counselors, residence hall directors–who will help students continue to learn "what go on in the world." The third paper, "SUNY Oswego Students Research the Topic of Abuse," provides examples of ways that Oswego students have demonstrated concern and scholarship in this area by elaborating on three specific topics of abuse that have been the subject of research papers written by undergraduate students: female circumcision in Africa, violence in families around the world, and terrorism and torture. The final paper, "Arts in Education," offers references to art in "The Color Purple" and describes some of the opportunities for students at Oswego to appreciate art, participate in art, create art, and develop a knowledge of the visual and performing arts. [More] Descriptors: Art Education, Battered Women, College Environment, College Students

Streitenberger, Denise; McGregor, Joy (1999). Treasure Hunt or Torture: Student's Perspectives on Research Projects. Two naturalistic research studies observed 45 eleventh grade students carrying out research paper assignments, and a third such study focused on 26 third grade students. The studies took place in Alberta (Canada) in 1993, Texas in 1996, and Washington state in 1999. From data analyzed in the interviews and written documents, the initial findings indicated that third grade and eleventh grade students feel and think about research writing activities similarly. The younger students seemed more process oriented than the older ones. The third grade students commented on enjoying reading the information on their topic and telling the facts they had learned. The older students used methods of citation and more sophisticated paraphrasing techniques. The younger students did not use any citations. The amount of blatant copying for the Texas study and the Washington study were comparable. The mental models of both age groups were surprisingly similar. (Contains 15 references.) [More] Descriptors: Age Differences, Citations (References), Cognitive Development, Cognitive Processes

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