Bibliography: Torture (page 5 of 9)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the Positive Universe: On Torture website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Anne-Laurence Lacroix, Justin Benson, Luz Angela Melo, Edith Montgomery, Leslie Fife, Yasmin Naqvi, Fernando Mejia, Timothy D. Stanley, Ahmed M. Abdel-Khalek, and Ben Schonveld.

Naqvi, Yasmin (2001). Rights of the Child in Turkey. This report to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention by Turkey and observations regarding violence against girls in Turkey. The report is presented in three major parts. Part 1 asserts that despite the considerable legal framework for protecting children's rights, there is adequate proof that there are serious deficiencies in Turkey's system of child protection. Observations and recommendations are made in the following areas: (1) definition of a child; (2) torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment; and (3) children in conflict with the law. This part concludes with recommendations related to the discrimination of Kurdish children and girls, treatment of refugee children, torture, and the juvenile justice system. Part 2 focuses on violence against girls in Turkey. This second part details problems related to domestic violence, marital rape, crimes committed against females in the name of "honor," virginity testing, sexual violence, prostitution and trafficking in girls, and state-perpetrated violence against girls. This part concludes with recommendations related to each of the problems discussed. Part 3 provides a summary of observations and recommendations by the U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child–Turkey, including those related to difficulties in implementation the Convention; civil rights and freedoms; family environment and alternative care; basic health and welfare; education, leisure, and cultural activities; and special protection measures. [More] Descriptors: Child Abuse, Child Advocacy, Child Safety, Child Welfare

Feller, Markus (2000). Rights of the Child in Burundi. This report to the United Nations (U.N.) Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by Burundi. The report is presented in seven parts. Part 1 outlines preliminary observations regarding Burundi's ratification of the Convention, noting that the government omitted important information in their report to the Committee on the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Part 2 presents general observations on the situation of children in Burundi, asserting that torture seems to be a systematic practice within the country, with evidence for violations of children's rights by rebel forces, the police and armed forces, and by family members. Part 3 of the report provides definitions of "child." Part 4 details protections against torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, including the definition of torture in international law and Burundi's legal framework. Part 5 concerns children in conflict with the law, presenting information on the age of penal responsibility, policy custody, and procedures related to the death penalty, life imprisonment, children's complaints, independence of the judiciary, validity of confessions obtained under torture, detention with adults, and medical examinations during detention. Part 6 of the report notes concern with ethnic tensions in Burundi between the Hutu and Tutsi, and describes refugee camp and regroupment sites. Following OMTC conclusions, the report presents a summary of observations and recommendations by the U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child–Burundi, in the following areas: positive aspects, factors and difficulties impeding the implementation of the Convention, principal subjects of concern, and suggestions and recommendations. [More] Descriptors: Child Abuse, Child Advocacy, Child Safety, Child Welfare

Silverberg, Stu; Samuel, Arthur G. (2004). The Effect of Age of Second Language Acquisition on the Representation and Processing of Second Language Words, Journal of Memory and Language. In this study, the effects of second language (i.e., L2) proficiency and age of second language acquisition are assessed. Three types of bilinguals are compared: Early L2 learners, Late highly proficient L2 learners, and Late less proficient L2 learners. A lexical decision priming paradigm is used in which the critical trials consist of first language (i.e., L1) Spanish targets preceded by English (L2) primes. Three types of L2-L1 priming conditions were used: Semantic primes [e.g., PRIME=nail; TARGET=TORNILLO ("screw")], Mediated Form primes [e.g., PRIME=bull ("toro"); TARGET="TOR"NILLO], and Form primes (e.g., PRIME="torture"; target="TOR"NILLO). Semantic and Mediated Form primes produced facilitative priming effects for the Early group, but not for either of the Late groups. Highly proficient Late learners showed inhibitory effects of Form primes, whereas the less proficient group produced no priming effects of any type. The pattern of priming effects is consistent with an interactive activation architecture in which the semantic/conceptual level is shared by L1 and L2 for Early learners, versus a shared lexical level for proficient Late learners. The implication is that age of L2 acquisition has a major influence on how bilinguals represent and access words in their second language. [More] Descriptors: Semantics, Language Processing, Second Language Learning, Age

Melo, Luz Angela (2000). Rights of the Child in Costa Rica: Report Concerning the Application of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Republic of Costa Rica. This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the nation of Costa Rica. The report's introduction notes that in addition to ratifying the Convention, Costa Rica's constitution has several provisions aimed at giving special protection to children, and there is now a Children's Ombudsman within the office of the People's Ombudsman. However, the Costa Rican legislation still contains loopholes which could impede effective protection of children's rights, and Costa Rican authorities have failed to supply the OMCT information concerning conditions in which children are detained, programs of rehabilitation for those children, protection of children against ill-treatment and torture, and penalties applied to officials or agents of the State responsible for violations perpetrated against children. The report next presents recommendations in these areas: (1) criminal responsibility of the child; (2) right to be heard in any procedure; (3) sanctions applied to children; (4) definition and prohibition of torture-protection measures; (5) prosecution of those responsible for torture and physical ill-treatment of children; (6) protection during detention; and (7) sanctions in case of arbitrary arrest or detention. The report then provides concluding observations and recommendations, including follow-up measures undertaken and progress achieved by the State party, factors and difficulties impeding further progress in implementation of the Convention; and principal subjects of concern and committee recommendations in areas including legislation and institutional reform, coordination and monitoring, civil rights and freedoms, family environment and alternative care, basic health and welfare, and education, leisure, and cultural activities. [More] Descriptors: Change Strategies, Child Abuse, Child Advocacy, Child Safety

Lacroix, Anne-Laurence; Mejia, Fernando (1995). Rights of the Child in Senegal. This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Republic of Senegal. Part 1 of the report, "Preliminary Observations," discusses Senegal's ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its participation in other international instruments relating to human rights which condemn the practice of torture. Part 2, "General Observations," discusses in detail Senegal's legislation regarding torture and crimes against children and points out perceived inadequacies in policy and practice. Part 3, "Children in Conflict with the Law," details Senegal's Penal Code with regard to minors, pointing out areas for improvement. Part 4, "Conclusions," asserts that the International Secretariat of OMCT/SOS-Torture laments the excessively condensed manner in which Senegal addressed torture and cruel, inhuman punishment in its reporting on article 37 of the Convention of the Rights of the Child. This section also includes various recommendations and lists areas of concern regarding compliance with the Convention. The report concludes with a summary of observations and recommendations by the U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child–Senegal, in the following areas: positive factors, factors and difficulties impeding the implementation of the Convention, principal subjects of concern, and suggestions and recommendations. [More] Descriptors: Child Abuse, Child Advocacy, Child Safety, Child Welfare

Mejia, Fernando (1997). Rights of the Child in Algeria. This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by Algeria. The report's introduction asserts that although OMCT welcomes legislative and institutional efforts made by Algeria since 1992 to carry out its obligations under the Convention, many efforts thus far are insufficient or contradictory. The report then contains observations and recommendations in the following areas: (1) definition of the child; (2) penal responsibility of the child; (3) the right to be heard in any procedure; (4) competent jurisdiction; (5) sanctions applied to children; (6) death penalty and life imprisonment; (7) definition and prohibition of torture; (8) protection during police custody; (9) medical examination during police custody; (10) sanctions in case of arbitrary arrest or detention; (11) validity of confessions obtained under torture; (12) prosecution of those responsible for torture; (13) sanctions for those who torture children; (14) sanctions of other offenses against children; (15) discrimination regarding children; and (16) minorities or native groups. Following its own conclusions, the report includes a summary of observations and recommendations by the U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child–Algeria, in the following areas: positive factors, factors and difficulties impeding the implementation of the convention, principal subjects of concern, and suggestions and recommendations. [More] Descriptors: Child Abuse, Child Advocacy, Child Safety, Child Welfare

Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network, Parramatta. (2002). Synergy, 2003. Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network. Each issue in the 2002 edition of the Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network (ATMHN) newsletter represents a theme critical to mental health practitioners. The Winter 2002 issue features articles on the psychological consequences of interpreters in relation to working with torture and trauma clients, addressing language issues on mental health, and specialist advocacy services for people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. The Autumn 2002 issue focuses on promoting well-being in multicultural communities and presents an article on the "New Arrival Refugee Women, Health and Wellbeing Project," The issues contain reports on current ATMHN-funded projects, book reviews, and lists of additional mental health resources. (Contains 25 references.) [More] Descriptors: Acculturation, Community Health Services, Cultural Pluralism, Foreign Countries

Stanley, Timothy D.; Wong, Lap Kei; Prigmore, Daniel; Benson, Justin; Fishler, Nathan; Fife, Leslie; Colton, Don (2007). From Archi Torture to Architecture: Undergraduate Students Design and Implement Computers Using the Multimedia Logic Emulator, Computer Science Education. Students learn better when they both hear and do. In computer architecture courses "doing" can be difficult in small schools without hardware laboratories hosted by computer engineering, electrical engineering, or similar departments. Software solutions exist. Our success with George Mills' Multimedia Logic (MML) is the focus of this paper. MML provides a graphical computer architecture solution with convenient I/O support and the ability to build and emulate a variety of computer designs. It has proven highly motivational to upper division computer science students designing and constructing emulated computers. Student projects resulted in excellent student understanding of the detailed inner workings of computers. Students also developed better teamwork skills and produced useful training aids for the lower division computer organization class. Designs implemented include 8 bit and 16 bit von Neumann and Harvard architectures, from single cycle to 12 cycle instructions. Issues resolved during the learning process include timing, initialization, instruction set architecture, and I/O and assembler design. We discuss pedagogical issues involved in using MML to implement instructor and student computer designs. MML is compared to using a hardware-based Intel 8085 microprocessor basic systems course. [More] Descriptors: Undergraduate Students, Computer Software, Computer Science Education, Student Projects

Montgomery, Edith; And Others (1992). Children of Torture Victims: Reactions and Coping, Child Abuse and Neglect: The International Journal. Evaluation of 11 children from 5 exile families with at least 1 parent having been subjected to torture found children were anxious, depressive, and regressive with psychosomatic symptoms, sleep disorders, and family and school problems. Coping strategies including isolation and withdrawal, mental flight, eagerness to acclimatize, and strength of will and fighting. Descriptors: Anxiety, Behavior Patterns, Coping, Depression (Psychology)

Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M. (2004). The Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA): Its Development, Validation, and Results in Three Arab Countries, Death Studies. The Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA) was constructed and validated in a sample of undergraduates (17-33 yrs) in 3 Arab countries, Egypt (n = 418), Kuwait (n = 509), and Syria (n = 709). In its final form, the ASDA consists of 20 statements. Each item is answered on a 5-point intensity scale anchored by 1: No, and 5: Very much. Alpha reliabilities ranged from .88 to .93, and item-remainder correlations ranged between .27 and .74; the 1-week test-retest reliability was .90 (Egyptians only), denoting high internal consistency and stability. The correlations between the ASDA and Templer's DAS ranged from .60 to .74 denoting high convergent validity of the ASDA against the DAS in the 3 Arab countries. Four factors were extracted in the Egyptian sample and labeled "Fear of dead people and tombs", "Fear of postmortem events", "Fear of lethal disease", and "death preoccupation". The first two factors were almost completely identical in the three countries. The item, "I fear the torture of the grave", had a very high mean score. There were significant correlations between the ASDA and death depression, death obsession, reasons for death fear, and general anxiety, depression, obsession-compulsion, neuroticism, and being a female. All female groups attained significantly higher mean ASDA scores than their male counterparts. Kuwaitis had higher mean ASDA total scores, in comparison with their Egyptian and Syrian counterparts, whereas female Syrians attained the lowest mean ASDA total score in proportion to their female peers. [More] Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Measures (Individuals), Fear, Depression (Psychology)

Chronicle of Higher Education (2005). Chronicle of Higher Education. Volume 51, Number 20, January 21, 2005. "Chronicle of Higher Education" presents an abundant source of news and information for college and university faculty members and administrators. This January 21, 2005 issue of "Chronicle of Higher Education" includes the following articles: (1) "The Perils of Pursuing Prestige" (Lovett, Clara M.); (2) "A 'Civilizing' Mission in Late Colonial Kenya" (Elkins, Caroline); (3) "The Gospel of Born-Again Bodies" (Griffith, R. Marie); (4) "For Keep's Sake: A Chairman's Files" (Goldstein, Warren); (5) "Lending Their Hands after the Tsunami"; (6) "In Indonesia, Universities Are Transformed in to Relief Centers" (Overland, Martha Ann); (7) "Faculty Group Calls for Academic Integrity as Basis for Athletics Reform" (Suggs, Welch); (8) "At Its Convention, NCAA Preaches Fiscal Restraint and Academic Rigor" (Suggs, Welch); (9) "Scholars Say College Admissions Offices Misuse Advanced Placement Data: A Study Finds that the High-School Courses Aren't Always Good Predictors of College Success" (Glenn, David); (10) "Internet Experts Consult Their Crystal Balls" (Carnevale, Dan); (11) "Four Days in the Digital Future: A College Manager Does Her Legwork at the Year's Biggest Electronics Show" (Young, Jeffrey R.); (12) "Investors Increase Their Stakes in 3 Higher-Education Companies" (Blumenstyk, Goldie); (13) "The Health-Care Tussle: Colleges and Their Employees Struggle over the Growing Costs of Coverage" (Glenn, David); (14) "Affirmative Action and Military Recruiting Spur Debate at Law-School Meeting" (Mangan, Katherine S.); (15) "In Tsunami's Wake, Scientists Sift for Clues and Discoveries" (Monastersky, Richard); (16) "Torture's Paper Trail: A New Collection of Government Memoranda, Some Written by Professors, Shows how Officials Justified Prisoner Abuse in the Campaign against Terrorism" (Mangan, Katherine S.); (17) "Faculty Group Censures Benedict College again over 'A for Effort' Policy" (Smallwood, Scott); (18) "Stepping Out: The Discipline of Dance Gains a Foothold in Academe" (Lipka, Sara); and (19) "A Campus in Indonesia Survives, Barely" (Overland, Martha Ann). Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Higher Education, College Faculty, Affirmative Action

Schonveld, Ben; Mejia, Fernando (1997). Rights of the Child in Ethiopia. This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the nation of Ethiopia. The report's introduction asserts that despite the considerable lip service being paid by Ethiopia's government to children's rights, OMCT is concerned that the needs of the Ethiopian child with regard to gross violations of human rights are being overlooked. The report then presents observations and recommendations in the following areas: (1) the age of criminal responsibility; (2) torture, ill treatment, or other cruel or degrading treatment: the absence of protection; (3) draft legislation concerning torture; (4) current legislation concerning torture; (5) the right to redress; (6) corporal punishment as a punitive measure; (7) physical chastisement in institutions; (8) general protection from violence for children; (9) children in conflict with the law; (10) extensive discretionary powers of arrest; (11) arrest procedure; (12) further special powers of detention; (13) pre-trial detention; (14) the right to legal representation; (15) separation from adults in detention; (16) regular medical examinations; (17) heavy sentencing; and (18) solitary confinement. The report concludes with a summary of observations and recommendations by the U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child–Ethiopia, in the following areas: positive factors, factors and difficulties impeding the implementation of the convention, principal subjects of concern, and suggestions and recommendations. [More] Descriptors: Child Abuse, Child Advocacy, Child Safety, Child Welfare

Staub, Ervin (1990). Moral Exclusion, Personal Goal Theory, and Extreme Destructiveness, Journal of Social Issues. Describes how certain motives can combine with the exclusion of people from the moral universe, leading to torture, genocide, and mass killing. Personal goal theory is presented as a framework that guides moral conduct. Discusses the psychological bases of exclusion and inclusion. Discusses the power and obligation of bystanders. Descriptors: Conflict, Environmental Influences, Genocide, Intergroup Relations

Hickson, Joyce (1992). Children at War, Elementary School Guidance and Counseling. Describes experiences of children and adolescents in South Africa who have been subjected to the violence of the apartheid state. Discusses detention of children and torture and assault of detained children. Against this backdrop, explores the effects of violence on children, psychological trauma, counseling interventions, and applications of interventions with South African children and adolescents. Descriptors: Adolescents, Apartheid, Child Abuse, Children

Phelps, Thomas (1986). A Victimologist Looks at Terrorism, Social Science Record. State terrorism is defined as terrorism undertaken by a government against people within its own national boundaries. This article reviews the 12-point anti-terrorism program of Amnesty International, lists the psychological needs of victims, and catalogs the various methods of torture used in state terrorism. Descriptors: Criminology, Political Attitudes, Psychological Characteristics, Public Policy

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *