Bibliography: Torture (page 4 of 9)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the Positive Universe: On Torture website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Michael Easterbrook, Robert Cohen, M. T. Weiner, Rachel Thomson, Eric Fredua-Kwarteng, Pamela L. Caughie, Olivier Cosandey, Kevin Lee Windham, Nang Mo Lao Rives, and Robin Truth Goodman.

Thomson, Rachel (2009). Adult Learning Matters, Adults Learning. Adult Learners' Week–which is supported by the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills and the European Social Fund, amongst a raft of other organisations–is all about raising demand for learning. At its core, the campaign is about encouraging under-represented groups–including low-skilled, unemployed and low-paid adults and those with few or no qualifications–to participate in, and spread positive motivational messages about, learning. The week also challenges providers to engage the most isolated and excluded adults–prisoners and residents of other secure settings; people with health problems, disabilities and/or learning difficulties; refugees and survivors of torture; adults who are homeless or vulnerably housed; minority ethnic communities; older people–in activities which develop social and employment skills, confidence and ambition. The original funding proposal for Adult Learners' Week pointed up the need to challenge the indifference to education of many British adults. Eighteen years on, campaigns such as Adult Learners' Week still have a critical role to play in engaging more and different adults. [More] Descriptors: Learning Problems, Adult Basic Education, Adult Learning, Adult Students

De Mers, Kathleen D. (2010). "The Brain within Its Groove": Language and Struggling Students, English Journal. Words are the foundation of literacy. Words can express, in part, the joys, loves, triumphs, and sorrows of life. One person's thoughts, expressed through words, can powerfully influence and inspire audiences or readers and long outlive their author. But not everyone is enamored of words. For some students, words are a kind of torture. For them language, and therefore school, presents a constant, insurmountable obstacle from the time they step into their first classroom, its walls festooned with letters, words, and numbers. If putting characters together to make words mystifies some young children, reading and writing with competence intensifies the tedious battle for these students in the middle school and high school years. In this article, the author discusses how technology can stretch the boundaries of normal access to include people living with disabilities. Each year new technology offers teachers more opportunities to put literacy within reach for more students with disabilities, and for typical students who may simply be more interested and learn better when the studied content is available in multiple formats. When used appropriately, this common feature is a welcome labor-saving addition for everyone. Like those wider doors that make it easier for more people to enter buildings unassisted, advances in learning methods and the concept of universal design can lead more students to literacy. It's encouraging to think that by acknowledging and investigating the mysterious phenomenon that is language learning and taking advantage of science and technology, people can help students succeed in achieving the education they need in the modern world, ever-changing and awash in words. [More] Descriptors: Disabilities, Language Skills, Language Impairments, Educational Technology

Easterbrook, Michael (2001). Justice, Memory, and a Professor's Accusation, Chronicle of Higher Education. Discusses the accusation by a professor at the University of Miami that a prominent Chilean scholar participated in his torture in Chile after the 1973 coup, and the reverberations felt by academics from the accusation. Descriptors: College Faculty, Higher Education, Justice

Fredua-Kwarteng, Eric (2006). African Studies in a Canadian Academy: A Tool for Liberation or Marginalization?, Online Submission. This research uses critical race theory (CRT) as a conceptual perspective to study and analyze the experiences of ten students of African descent who enrolled in several African studies courses or related courses in an Ontarian university. The students, two females and eight males were interviewed between June and August 2005, using Semi-structured questions. The result of the study indicates that the organization of African studies program, the appointment of program coordinator/professors of African studies, selection of course materials/ readings, and the pedagogical practices of professors in that university tend to marginalize students enrolled in those courses and the program itself. Marginalization takes a variety of forms, including emotional torture, a sense of powerlessness, trivialization of African intellect, and tacit exclusion of Africa from intellectual discourses. The paper concludes by suggesting diversity policies that should be pursued by the academy in order to address marginalization of Africa studies. [More] Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Teaching Methods, African Studies, College Students

Weiner, M. T.; Miller, M. (2006). Deaf Children and Bullying: Directions for Future Research, American Annals of the Deaf. U.S. schools are currently addressing bullying and its effects on children. Bullying is characterized as repetitive verbal teasing, threatening, physical intimidation, demeaning others, violent acts, torture, and other forms of verbal and physical aggression (Smith & Sharp, 1994a). Little is known about bullying and its impact on deaf children. Measures to describe and quantify bullying factors in this population should be developed and validated that address characteristics of deaf victims and bullies, various types of school settings deaf children attend, bullying dynamics that may be unique to this population and its peers, and other environmental factors. The presence of disabilities besides deafness, social support systems of deaf children and their families, sociocultural background, degree of hearing loss, parental educational levels and occupations, socioeconomic status, and linguistic backgrounds should also be considered. This discussion highlights issues and precautions concerning future directions for studying bullying with deaf children. [More] Descriptors: Violence, Bullying, Aggression, Deafness

Kanstroom, Emily (2007). Justifying Torture: Explaining Democratic States' Noncompliance with International Humanitarian Law, Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad. On June 28, 1951, France ratified the 1949 Geneva Conventions, which prohibited the torture of prisoners of war. On August 2, 1955, the United States of America ratified the same document. Between 1954 and 1962, France fought a war against Algeria, which sought its independence from colonial rule. From September 11, 2001 until the present, the United States has been engaged in what its government has termed "The Global War on Terror," which has involved wars in Afghanistan, Iraq and holding detainees for interrogation at Guantanamo Bay. Although the two cases must be distinguished from one another based on different situational, ideological, and historical characteristics, there are critical commonalities. This study focuses on two distinct research questions: first, what explains the rationale by which France and the United States, two democratic states, violated international and domestic law by torturing prisoners of war? Second, how did these two states justify this noncompliance? This article engages the question of how international humanitarian law (IHL) operates or fails to operate in constraining state actors. This article illuminates some of the challenges IHL faces today in ensuring state compliance. [More]  [More] Descriptors: United States History, Foreign Countries, Terrorism, War

Whittaker, Shaun R. (1988). Counseling Torture Victims, Counseling Psychologist. Addresses the psychological effects of torture (including solitary confinement) and the implications of torture for counseling and the counseling psychology profession. Discusses counseling issues related to diagnosis of torture victims, treatment, special considerations for counselors, use of testimony as counseling technique, and prognosis. Descriptors: Client Characteristics (Human Services), Coping, Counseling Techniques, Psychological Patterns

Windham, Kevin Lee (2010). Southern Honor and Northern Piety: Henry Tutwiler, Alva Woods, and the Problem of Discipline at the University of Alabama, 1831-1837, ProQuest LLC. The University of Alabama opened its doors in April 1831, and over the next six years, the first president, Alva Woods, was confronted by numerous episodes of student misdeeds. Knife fights, dueling, shootings, slave baiting, hazing, the torture of animals, and the destruction of property were common events on campus. Woods–a Baptist minister from Vermont–was never able to end the troubles; in fact, student defiance ultimately led to mass resignations by the faculty and the installation of a new president. However, the traditional reading of Woods' tenure at Alabama has not taken into account deeper issues.   At the heart of Woods' difficulty was a contest for discipline. He came to Tuscaloosa determined to establish a religiously orthodox vision of virtuous conduct for the future leaders of Alabama. Woods himself was the product of New England's theological schism between Calvinism and Unitarianism. At that time he was mentored by his uncle Leonard Woods, who instilled in him a challenge to counter the spread of liberal theology by teaching the ethics of Christian piety. This was the charge that he pursued first at Columbian College, then as interim president of Brown University, as president of Transylvania University, and finally at Alabama.   While resolved to carry out his mission, he was met by seemingly constant waves of student insubordination. The students hailed from the homes of the planter elite where their rearing supplied them with ideals of privilege, and where spiritedness and indulged independence were rewarded rather than harnessed. Honor not piety was the Southern way and this premise was juxtapose Woods' theory of moral discipline. These two guiding principles remained at loggerheads until 1837 when Woods retreated to New England. Moreover, these are the two ideologies that have been neglected in the historiography of The University of Alabama. The first six years of the University's history must be understood not just as an era where boys were being boys or where student actions are summed up as the expected exaggerations of adolescence; rather, it was an era shaped by the clash of two great cultures, honor and piety.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:… [More] Descriptors: State Universities, College Presidents, Discipline, Ideology

Cosandey, Olivier (2001). Rights of the Child in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This report to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention by Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The report's introductory summary asserts that although the DRC has ratified the Convention and other international instruments condemning the practice of torture, torture seems to be systematically used in the DRC. The report notes that the current conflict in the DRC has resulted in large numbers of children being recruited/forced into armed service, killed, or displaced. Considerable discrimination is evident against girls, displaced children, refugee children, child soldiers, street children, and ethnic minority children. The report presents observations and recommendations in the following areas: (1) definition of a child; (2) torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment; (3) protection against all forms of violence, particularly sexual abuse; (4) children in conflict with the law; and (5) rehabilitation. The report's conclusion maintains that the state's report demonstrates its awareness of obstacles to applying the Convention, but has omitted important information, especially concerning ill-treatment and cases of torture. The report concludes with a summary of observations and recommendations by the U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child–Democratic Republic of the Congo, including those related to legislation; budget allocation; cooperation with nongovernmental organizations; civil rights and freedom; family environment and alternative care; basic health and welfare; education, leisure, and cultural activities; and special protection. (Contains 61 footnotes.) [More] Descriptors: Child Abuse, Child Advocacy, Child Safety, Child Welfare

Goodman, Robin Truth (2010). Love My Rifle: What Schoolgirls Need and How the Army Can Give It to Them, Review of Education, Pedagogy & Cultural Studies. In 2008, the Florida state legislature, by a nearly unanimous vote, rushed passage on a statute that allowed sex segregation in public school classrooms. According to the version of the bill that passed through the Florida House, sex-segregated public school classrooms would be an expansion of school choice and would be implemented only voluntarily. The Florida bill follows a national trend, coming on the heels of a 2004 federal provision. Early in 2009 it was reported in the "New York Times" that 445 sex-segregated classrooms and 95 sex-segregated public schools have arisen nationwide for the purpose of solving "sagging test scores and behavioral problems." This trend is happening despite a 1991 Supreme Court decision in "Garrett v. Board of Education" where the court decided that single-sex classrooms violated the Fourteenth Amendment. This article argues that the defense of single-sex classrooms uses girls' bodies–in line with the liberal tradition–as symbols of the limits of state regulatory authority and public interventions, and that the appearance of such limits helps to set in place a market fundamentalist or neoliberal ideology. In fact, arguments for sex segregation in schools intersect with aspects of arguments for the growing involvement of women in U.S. military combat, particularly when it comes to reappropriating women's working bodies as evidence of free market successfulness as well as the ineffectiveness and immorality of enforcing regulatory restrictions on (labor) markets. In this article, the author argues that the logic of privatization inhabits different spheres of political life in ways that cross-fertilize. The author looks at two recent accounts of women in military service: (1) Kayla Williams' "Love My Rifle More Than You: Young and Female in the U.S. Army," which tells of her participation as an Arabic translator in the initial invasion of Iraq in 2003; and (2) Brigadier General Janis Karpinski's "One Woman's Army: The Commanding General of Abu Ghraib Tells Her Story," which follows Karpinski's career path–a woman pioneering in a "man's army," in her own descriptions–as she rises to become–finally, after many tests, trials, and tribulations–the officer overseeing prisons in Iraq until the Abu-Ghraib torture photographs are exposed in 2004. Both these memoirs talk about women's inclusion in the military as evidence of growing but not yet realized gender equality in U.S. culture and work regimes. [More] Descriptors: Military Service, Public Schools, Privatization, Free Enterprise System

Caughie, Pamela L. (2007). Impassioned Teaching, Academe. The ongoing debate over academic freedom in venues such as "Academe," the "Chronicle of Higher Education," and the "New York Times" frames the issue in terms of a clash between values and politics on the one hand, and scholarship on the other. The idea that pedagogical responsibility requires toeing a line misrepresents the delicate dynamics of intellectual inquiry. As in most arguments structured by binary oppositions, such as debates over condoning torture versus coddling terrorists, sometimes responsibility, whether pedagogical or political, requires more than making a choice between two alternatives. Drawing the line between teaching and indoctrination, genuine inquiry and partisan politics, is never a simple or transparent act. To set it up as such a clear-cut choice, as if teachers all should know when that line has been crossed, is not just misleading but potentially dangerous. History shows that much of what passes for scholarship is a form of indoctrination. Part of the problem of trying to draw a line between scholarship and politics is that teaching is not just about content and methodology; it is also about people. Advocating balance is an implicit recognition of, and a panicked response to, the power of impassioned teaching. While the idea of balancing viewpoints is a threat to academic freedom, so is any effort to draw a line between advocacy and teaching. [More] Descriptors: Political Attitudes, Scholarship, Academic Freedom, Higher Education

Rives, Nang Mo Lao (2014). University Student Activism in Burma/Myanmar during the 1980S, ProQuest LLC. This study examines student activism and protests in Burma/Myanmar during the 1980s. It also considers the events of the 1962-1988 military dictatorship and constitutional socialist government of Burma that saw the economy decline and the difficult living circumstances of the people become a bed for the creation of unrest. During the era of the Ne Win dictatorship, what would later be labeled a 50-year "War on Students," was initiated with several Lon Htein/Tatmadaw actions against students and three reforms of Burmese university education. These were followed by a fourth reform, the sweeping post-1988 school closures and restructuring, and the current, and possibly fifth, set of 2012-2014 university education changes. The focus of this study is the events of 1988 which are characterized as three waves of protest: (1) the First Wave is the week of disturbances between March 12-18 known as the week that shook Rangoon; (2) the Second Wave is the June Affairs, and (3) the Third Wave is the revolt of August/September, which was initiated by the 8-8-88 strike and followed by the "Month of Freedom." It was during this month that Aung San Suu Kyi, the daughter of the Aung San, the father of Burmese independence, first appeared publicly in Burma. The Prelude to these three waves of unrest was the fall of 1987 protests over the demonetization of September 5, and the Postlude to these three waves was the "crackdown" of September 18, 1988 which lasted for well over a year and resulted in perhaps 3,000 casualties as well as arrests, tortures, and imprisonments. During this period the Tatmadaw (Burmese military) took back direct control of Burma and changed its name to Myanmar. They also held free and fair multiparty elections in 1990, which they lost to Aung San Suu Kyi's National League for Democracy party. After the 1990 elections, power was never transferred to the NLD, but instead a convention to write a new constitution was ordered. This constitution was adopted in 2008 and elections held in 2010 according to its provisions, which ensured a military domination of the government and the country. The aftermath for higher education of the military crackdown included the emergence of Aung San Suu Kyi as the leader of the NLD pro-democracy party and her rise to the status of a world celebrity although the government attempted to prevent this from happening. For Burmese higher education, the aftermath of1988 included lengthy university closures, a faculty retraining camp, fragmentation of about 30 institutions into over 150 tertiary education units located on many small inconveniently sited campuses, and channeling of about two-thirds of Myanmar's three-fourths of a million post-secondary education students into distance education programs. During the 1990s, when the universities were either closed or offering only short terms, many university students had their studies delayed, denied, or curtailed by government imposed control measures that curtailed their ability to form solidarity with other students or have a satisfactory learning experience. In 2013, a report of the Institute of International Education (IIE) would recommend a complete renovation of higher education in Burma. In response to international pressures applied after the disastrous Saffron Revolt and Cyclone Nargis events of 2007 and 2008, elections were held in 2010, and a new president, Thein Sein, was inaugurated in 2011. With this came a new direction and the adoption of policies aimed to return Burma/Myanmar to the international community of nations and improve relations with European countries and the US. This included an official commitment to improve the Education Sector of Myanmar with additional funding and the assistance of outside expertise. These changes were welcomed by the international community and the US Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton, and President Barak Obama made visits to Myanmar ,and the Rangoon and Mandalay University campuses were reopened to undergraduates in December 2013. In the Parliament, Education Sector bills are expected to pass in 2014, and a University Education bill is currently being considered by a committee chaired by Aung San Suu Kyi, now a Member of Parliament as well as leader of the NLD Party. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:… [More] Descriptors: Foreign Countries, College Students, Activism, Educational History

Benedetto, Katy; Lamb, Alexandra; Cohen, Robert (2009). The Other September 11: Teaching about the 1973 Overthrow of Chilean President Salvador Allende, Social Education. September 11, 2001, is a day most American high school students remember. They may not fully grasp the events that took place, the reasons behind the terrorist attacks on the United States, or their implications, but they remember. They were children when this national trauma occurred–and they saw those unforgettable television images of the World Trade Center exploding and the Pentagon aflame. Every fall they see somber commemorations of the September 11 attacks and the tragic loss of life left in their wake. But what few students–or other Americans–know is that long before 2001, September 11 has been a tragic historical anniversary in Latin America because it was the day that Chile's democratically elected president, Salvador Allende, was overthrown and died in a bloody coup in 1973. The coup marked the start of a dismal era for Chilean democracy because it led to more than a decade of military rule by Augusto Pinochet, whose brutal dictatorship (1973-1990) consolidated itself via crimes against humanity–the disappearance, torture, and murder of thousands of dissidents. This article and the teaching suggestions aim to provide a better understanding of Chile's September 11 by examining relevant literature, a primary source document, and essays by some of the event's witnesses (e.g., writings by Ariel Dorfman). The authors offer a teaching activity centering on one of the most revealing historical sources on the U.S. role in Allende's Chile, a declassified five-point memorandum written to President Richard Nixon on November 17, 1970, by his national security advisor, Henry Kissinger. It outlines covert measures that the U.S. government planned to use to undermine and subvert Allende's presidency, illuminating the breadth of American influence abroad and directly implicating the U.S. government in some of the chaotic events that wracked Chile in the early 1970s, which destabilized the Allende government and paved the way for the rise of Pinochet. The covert, even conspiratorial, nature of Nixon and Kissinger's actions leading up to the coup is highly engrossing, leaving students to follow and question what happened with the same rapt attention they might pay to a true crime story. [More] Descriptors: Terrorism, National Security, Democracy, Primary Sources

Amnesty International USA, New York, NY. (1985). Torture by Governments, A Seven Part Educational Guide for High Schools. This interdisciplinary unit includes seven lessons that can be adapted to fit individual classrooms and curricular needs. The focus of the lessons is on human rights and human rights abuses. The lessons include: (1) "Who Are the Victims?"; (2) "Coping"; (3) "Torturers"; (4) "A Case for Torture?"; (5) "The Map of Torture"; (6) "The Words To Say It"; and (7) "The Fight against Torture." The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights is included, as are several newspaper articles, photographs, and maps. [More] Descriptors: Childrens Rights, Civil Liberties, Civil Rights, Due Process

Totten, Samuel (1985). Torture: A Unit for Secondary Students, Social Education. Torture is a worldwide, not an isolated, phenomenon. It is epidemic in the world. A human rights unit for high school students on torture as a tool of the state is presented. An interdisciplinary approach, involving social studies and language arts, is used. Descriptors: Civil Liberties, Global Approach, High Schools, Interdisciplinary Approach

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