Bibliography: Torture (page 3 of 9)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the Positive Universe: On Torture website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Amy Okamura, Maki Katoh, Ed O'Brien, Elizabeth M. Sturgeon, Shanee Stepakoff, Allen Keller, Josephine Atieno Ochieng', Potiphar Nkhoma, Allison L. Baer, and Jacqueline N. Glasgow.

O'Brien, Ed (2004). Torture and the War on Terror, Social Education. In this article, the author examines another dimension of human rights–the problem of torture. He looks at U.S. commitments to international conventions prohibiting torture in light of the abuses at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq. He shows how a position adopted by the Bush administration that these international conventions did not apply to the war against terrorists resulted in the development of interrogation practices at Guantanamo Bay that ignored the conventions. These practices later carried over into Iraq. The U.S. has signed the four Geneva Conventions, which expressly prohibit any kind of physical or psychological coercion and torture or inhuman treatment of prisoners of war. In 1996, Congress also passed the War Crimes Act to ban all war crimes, which are referred to as grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions? But does the Geneva Convention apply to the War on Terror? The U.S. government had previously taken the position that such covenants did not apply to the prisoners taken during the war in Afghanistan because it was not a war against a nation but rather against terrorist groups, Al Qaeda and the Taliban (which the U.S. had not recognized as the legitimate government of Afghanistan). Those who oppose the consideration of the use of torture as an interrogation method regard it as a slippery slope that can lead to many other abuses. Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Terrorism, Military Personnel, Civil Rights

Ambrus, Steven (2012). Losing American Students, Mexican Universities Struggle against a Scary Image, Chronicle of Higher Education. Like most Mexicans, Eugenio Yarce has been deeply affected by the violence between drug cartels and the Mexican army, which has filled news coverage with accounts of kidnappings, assassinations, and torture. But for Mr. Yarce, deputy rector for outreach here at the private Autonomous Popular University of the State of Puebla, or Upaep, the bloodletting has taken an added toll. Responsible for overseeing international programs, he has lost 20 full-time and 130 summer students from the United States in the past year and a half. That has become a dishearteningly familiar story for Mexico's colleges and universities, which have found themselves struggling to defend their safety record amid negative coverage of Mexico in the American news media and grim travel warnings from the U.S. State Department. Between the 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 academic years, the number of American undergraduate and graduate students studying in Mexico dropped 29 percent, to 7,157, according to the most recent "Open Doors" report from the Institute of International Education. Mexican institutions say not only that they are receiving fewer applications from students in the United States, but also that they are able to send fewer students north as exchange programs are canceled. A survey of 30 institutions last May by the Mexican Association of International Education found that 86 percent had experienced a decline in enrollments by international students and 23 percent had had exchange programs canceled. The overwhelming portion of that reduction appears to have been a result of cancellations by students and universities from the United States. Officials of the university fear the withdrawals could impoverish its cultural and academic atmosphere, given the relatively few opportunities that its middle- and lower middle-class students have for travel. They say they will be looking to create relationships with universities in other countries, adding that they are exploring opportunities in Britain, France, Germany, and the Netherlands. [More] Descriptors: Foreign Countries, International Educational Exchange, Exchange Programs, International Programs

Lhewa, Dechen; Banu, Sophia; Rosenfeld, Barry; Keller, Allen (2007). Validation of a Tibetan Translation of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, Assessment. This study sought to translate and validate the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL) and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) in a Tibetan population. Translated questionnaires were administered to 57 Tibetan survivors of torture/human rights abuses living in the United States and receiving services in a torture treatment program. Participants were evaluated to determine if they met criteria for major depressive episode, generalized anxiety disorder, or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Coefficient alpha for the HSCL Anxiety subscale (0.89), Depression subscale (0.92), and the HTQ (0.89) were high. Diagnostic accuracy using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis generated good classification accuracy for anxiety (0.89), depression (0.92), and PTSD (0.83). However, although sensitivity and specificity for HSCL subscales were quite high, the HTQ generated low sensitivity (0.33), partly because of a low rate of PTSD. Results support the reliability and validity of the HSCL but suggest further study of the HTQ with this population is required. [More] Descriptors: Measures (Individuals), Depression (Psychology), Anxiety, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Stanistreet, Paul (2004). "The Most Important Tool You Can Have in Your Work Is Wanting to Understand", Adults Learning. The policy of dispersing refugees and asylum seekers around the country found many agencies unprepared for the difficulties of supporting those who have been subjected to torture. A London-based foundation is setting up branches around the UK to help people whose lives have been torn apart by torture find a way to live with their experiences. This article features the Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture, which was established in 1985 as a human rights organisation working to enable survivors of torture "to engage in a healing process to assert their own human dignity and worth." The Medical Foundation has developed what it terms a "human rights model of counselling" which aims to address advocacy and protection issues within the therapeutic relationship. Growing from small beginnings in two rooms in the former National Temperance Hospital in north west London, the organisation now employs 400 paid and volunteer staff, providing a wide range of medical and social care, practical assistance, and physical and psychological therapy. It has assisted nearly 40,000 people since its launch. [More] Descriptors: Counselor Client Relationship, Human Dignity, Civil Rights, Models

Dorfman, Dorinne (2008). A Vignette: "You're American?" Attempts to Reach Muslim High School Students in Germany, International Education. This article presents a story of how an American teacher in Berlin tried to reach out to her Muslim high school students. She relates how her students were always gracious to her but when they found out she was an American, they tend to avoid talking to her. She explains that the reputation the United States has earned over the past three years has warranted this rejection. For many Muslims and others worldwide, Bush's America conjures up images of torture at Abu Ghraib, pitiless incarceration at Guantanamo Bay, and rouses rage against a falsely justified war that has killed no less than 33,700 civilians and possibly over 100,000 total Iraqis. This volatile backdrop further compelled her to reach out to her Muslim students. To reach out to her students, she acted as a private citizen to share a critical perspective rarely heard in media coverage of Americans. [More] Descriptors: Muslims, News Reporting, Foreign Countries, High School Students

Stewart, Pearl (2008). "Preserving Intellectual Capital", Diverse: Issues in Higher Education. In 2005, living in his native Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dr. Felix Kaputu was arrested and accused of participating in a separatist movement outlawed by the government–charges he denied. He and other political detainees were incarcerated for several months, enduring beatings and torture. Amnesty International and other human rights groups pressed for the release of Kaputu and other prisoners, and after four months Kaputu was set free. His experiences qualified him for support from the Scholar Rescue Fund, a project of the nonprofit Institute of International Education, perhaps best known for administering the Fulbright Student and Scholars program. This article describes how the Institute of International Education's Scholar Rescue Fund assists scholars like Kaputu and others whose academic freedoms are threatened in their home countries. [More] Descriptors: Safety, International Educational Exchange, Foreign Countries, Civil Rights

Ochieng', Josephine Atieno (2010). Outward Peace, Inward Pieces: A Case of the Effect of the Kenya Post-Election Violence, British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. In December 2007, unprecedented violence erupted in Kenya following the announcement of disputed presidential election results. The electorate was divided along ethnic lines and tribal clashes bordering on ethnic cleansing escalated. Those supporting opposing camps found themselves on the wrong side of the political divide leading to killings, maiming, and arson, destruction of property and displacement of persons both locally and internationally. Children were not spared these skirmishes as they found themselves in the centre of the battlefield. Many of them witnessed or were subjected to torture, while others found themselves orphaned in the twinkling of an eye. This paper highlights the plight of one such survivor who was then taken to live with a relative she hardly knew, and how she struggles to make it despite the obstacles she may be facing. It also discusses, albeit briefly, the improvised methods used by the counsellor in trying to help this girl. The paper contributes to the field of counselling by providing insight on what else could be done for such individuals in the face of adversity by describing some counselling methods used with the client in question. Some challenges faced in working with the client are enumerated alongside a few suggestions on the way forward. [More] Descriptors: Elections, Foreign Countries, Violence, Writing (Composition)

Suarez, Eliana Barrios (2013). Two Decades Later: The Resilience and Post-Traumatic Responses of Indigenous Quechua Girls and Adolescents in the Aftermath of the Peruvian Armed Conflict, Child Abuse & Neglect: The International Journal. Objectives: In comparison to other traumatic events, the impact of a childhood during war on resilience later in life has been seldom examined. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the long term outcomes of post-traumatic responses and resilience of a sample of adult Indigenous Quechua women, who were girls or adolescents during the Peruvian armed conflict (1980-1995). Methods: The study instruments (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire Part I and IV; Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale; Life Stress Questionnaire) were translated to Quechua and cross-culturally validated. A cross sectional survey design was used in 2010 to collect data from a convenience sample of 75 participants (25-45 years old) in Ayacucho, Peru, the region most affected by the conflict. Data was examined using hierarchical regression analyses. Results: Participants reported extreme exposure to violence (e.g., sexual violence, torture, combat, death of family members, and forced displacement) during the armed conflict, but surprisingly, only 5.3% reported a current level of symptoms that may indicate a possible post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Resilience scores and number of years exposed to conflict as a child were not associated with PTSD symptoms; instead only the degree of exposure to violence, and current level of stress contributed to the variance of PTSD-related symptoms. Conversely, resilience and current stress contributed to the variance of trauma symptoms when measured by local idioms of distress. Conclusions: Findings should be interpreted with caution, due to limitations in the content validity of instruments, risk of inaccurate recall, use of individual explanations of distress (such as PTSD) for collective experiences of violence, use of non-indigenous frameworks to examine Indigenous resilience, and other methodological concerns. The study however highlights the high degree of traumatic exposure of these former war children. While the prevalence of potential PTSD was astonishingly low in this sample, a number of women still suffer from significant distress two decades after the traumatic events. Therefore, post-conflict interventions should renew efforts to foster the resilience of marginalized populations disproportionately targeted by violence and advocate for enhanced protection of women and children in current armed conflicts. [More] Descriptors: Violence, Females, Adolescents, Measures (Individuals)

Hanscom, Karen L. (2001). Treating Survivors of War Trauma and Torture, American Psychologist. Proposes a mental health treatment model for survivors of torture and war trauma, presenting principles underlying such treatment and a developmental view of such abuse. Describes a Guatemalan project that uses the model to train village women to treat survivors in their communities and a U.S. torture treatment program that treats survivors seeking asylum in the United States. Descriptors: Awards, Civil Liberties, Coping, Foreign Countries

Stepakoff, Shanee; Hubbard, Jon; Katoh, Maki; Falk, Erika; Mikulu, Jean-Baptiste; Nkhoma, Potiphar; Omagwa, Yuvenalis (2006). Trauma Healing in Refugee Camps in Guinea: A Psychosocial Program for Liberian and Sierra Leonean Survivors of Torture and War, American Psychologist. From 1999 to 2005, the Minneapolis-based Center for Victims of Torture (CVT) served Liberian and Sierra Leonean survivors of torture and war living in the refugee camps of Guinea. A psychosocial program was developed with 3 main goals: (1) to provide mental health care; (2) to train local refugee counselors; and (3) to raise community awareness about war trauma and mental health. Utilizing paraprofessional counselors under the close, on-site supervision of expatriate clinicians, the treatment model blended elements of Western and indigenous healing. The core component consisted of relationship-based supportive group counseling. Clinical interventions were guided by a 3-stage model of trauma recovery (safety, mourning, reconnection), which was adapted to the realities of the refugee camp setting. Over 4,000 clients were provided with counseling, and an additional 15,000 were provided with other supportive services. Results from follow-up assessments indicated significant reductions in trauma symptoms and increases in measures of daily functioning and social support during and after participation in groups. The treatment model developed in Guinea served as the basis for CVT's ongoing work with survivors in Sierra Leone and Liberia. [More] Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Refugees, Mental Health, Group Counseling

Glasgow, Jacqueline N.; Baer, Allison L. (2011). Lives beyond Suffering: The Child Soldiers of African Wars, English Journal. Sierra Leone is only one of the more than 50 armed conflicts currently going on around the world. It is estimated that 20 million children were either refugees or displaced internally, and some 300,000 children under the age of 18 were used in hostilities at any given time as government or rebel soldiers, with about one-third reportedly fighting in Africa (Machel). While "the recruitment of children under age 15 for military purposes is a war crime under a statute of the International Criminal Court," the United Nations contends that there are still as many as 16 armies that currently recruit children. The facts facing these children are horrific. According to the Thomson Reuters Foundation, orphaned and refugee children are frequently taken, some are forced into atrocious acts of violence against their own family to ensure that they cannot go home, many are given drugs to make them more willing warriors, and "some government forces capture and torture children suspected of supporting opposition groups." What is to be the response of English educators to these events? Looking at teaching through the lens of "radical pedagogy," the authors contend that they must teach about the plight of these children because it is their responsibility to challenge the status quo and expand students' experiences by engaging them in learning that helps develop their critical consciousness. The authors discuss teaching literacy as a means of transformation, and they use "A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier" to engage students in the radical pedagogy of change. An annotated list of other works on victims of African wars is offered. [More] Descriptors: Foreign Countries, War, Children, Refugees

Engstrom, David W.; Okamura, Amy (2007). A Nation of Immigrants: A Call for a Specialization in Immigrant Well-Being, Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work. Contemporary challenges serving immigrants and their communities require a reexamination of social services, social work practice, and social work curricula, as millions of people, particularly from non-European countries, have come to the United States in the last 40 years. Social work must develop a new field of specialization that addresses the unique features of the immigrant and refugee experiences and service needs that consider the following: differing world views, values, beliefs, lifestyles, and languages; theories of assimilation and acculturation; immigration and other laws that support or restrict individual and family development; the "hidden" lives of undocumented families; assessment and treatment of survivors of torture and trafficking as well as victims of domestic violence; and the development of community capacity-building partnerships with newcomers and informed advocacy for social protection. [More] Descriptors: Family Violence, World Views, Foreign Countries, Specialization

Parkes, Jenny (2007). The Multiple Meanings of Violence: Children's Talk about Life in a South African Neighbourhood, Childhood: A Global Journal of Child Research. Drawing on data from an empirical study of children's engagements with violence in South Africa, this article explores children's talk about violence in their neighbourhood. Violence entered into children's daily lives in many forms, repelling and disempowering them. At the same time, violence could attract, when it was understood as a form of capital or a source of control. As children tried to negotiate subject positions in relation to violence, they experienced conflicts and tensions; in managing these tensions, they both resisted and perpetuated violent beliefs and practices. The article concludes by considering the implications for the well-being of young people, and by suggesting ways in which programmes and interventions might support children's resistance to violence. [This study was also supported by the Trauma Centre for the Survivors of Violence and Torture.] [More] Descriptors: Children, Foreign Countries, Violence, Neighborhoods

Alekseeva, L. S. (2007). Problems of Child Abuse in the Home, Russian Education and Society. Children make up the segment of society that is the most defenseless, vulnerable, and completely dependent on adults. It is the fault of adults when children end up in areas of natural disasters and catastrophes or zones of military combat operations and become the hostages and victims of physical, sexual, and emotional violence. As E. Fromm pointed out, the scale of atrocities that are committed against children is very high, from the infliction of bodily injuries to torture and murder (Fromm 1999). The current period has witnessed trafficking in children; children's destitution, begging, and prostitution; economic exploitation; loss of dwelling and family livelihood; and neglect of their needs and interests. There are frequent deaths of children due to hunger or warfare, interethnic conflicts, murder in refugee camps, and in the home. In this article, the author discusses the problems of child abuse in the home and provides ways on how to combat violence against children. [More] Descriptors: Child Abuse, Sexual Abuse, Rape, Family Violence

Sturgeon, Elizabeth M. (2007). "Where Is the Love?": The Ethics of Empathy in Abu Ghraib, CEA Forum. Abu Ghraib. The name conjures horrifying images of abuse, torture, and man's inhumanity to man. In one photograph, a pyramid of naked detainees huddles outside a jail cell; in another, a soldier holds the end of a dog leash which is attached at the neck to a prostrate prisoner; in another, a soldier gives the thumbs-up sign in front of a line of naked detainees. A constant barrage of images like these can often leave students shaking their heads and repeating a line from the Black Eyed Peas, "Where is the love, the love, the love?" In this article, assistant professor Elizabeth Sturgeon explores how professors can show their students the value of empathetic identification while still teaching critical thinking skills, without forcing them to adapt the professors' viewpoints, which often results in college professors being stigmatized as radicals. Further, she asks how teachers can empower their students to engage the political hot-spots around the globe and in their communities instead of turning away to turn the volume of their iPods up and tune out? Herein, Sturgeon discusses a two-tier approach to teaching freshman composition that she has been using regularly for the past eight years. Firstly, she introduces current subjects of social, cultural, and political significance to her class. In this article, she specifically discusses the controversy surrounding the discovery of the photographs in January 2004 which testify to the abuse and torture that occurred at Abu Ghraib Prison in Baghdad. Secondly, she has students analyze these current events–in this case, the abuse at Abu Ghraib–from the perspectives of major researchers, thinkers, and writers who, in the wake of the Holocaust, attempt to make sense of mankind's common (in)humanity. [More] Descriptors: Ethics, Empathy, Thinking Skills, Critical Thinking

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