Bibliography: Torture (page 2 of 9)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the Positive Universe: On Torture website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Cecilia Wainryb, Liya Aklilu, Peter Mayo, Karen Phelan Kozlowski, Roberto J. Gonzalez, Steven D. Schwinn, Kathleen M. Warber, Shane S. Chaplin, Diane Sumney, and Robert Zachariae.

Wainryb, Cecilia (2011). "And so They Ordered Me to Kill a Person": Conceptualizing the Impacts of Child Soldiering on the Development of Moral Agency, Human Development. Approximately 300,000 child soldiers serve in various armed groups around the world, and become directly implicated in the perpetration of kidnappings, killings, and torture. Considering that children construct moral concepts and a sense of themselves as moral beings in the context of their everyday interactions with others, the concern with how their harrowing experiences of violence may affect their moral development is particularly compelling. To date, however, no research has been conducted examining how these youths grapple with the violence they have perpetrated and how they reconcile their own actions with a view of themselves as moral people. In this paper, I review the limitations of constructs relying on moral disengagement and post-traumatic stress, which are typically used for examining the aftermaths of violence perpetration, and outline a new framework grounded on the normative developmental process whereby children grapple with their experiences of wrongdoing. [More] Descriptors: Children, Military Personnel, Moral Development, Moral Values

Stokes, Helga; Chaplin, Shane S.; Dessouky, Shimaa; Aklilu, Liya; Hopson, Rodney K. (2011). Addressing Social Injustices, Displacement, and Minority Rights through Cases of Culturally Responsive Evaluation, Diaspora, Indigenous, and Minority Education. Evaluation of programs that address the lingering effects of human rights abuses during times of conflict is necessary to improve program sustainability and create a knowledge bank about the effectiveness of strategies. Outcomes, however, are hard to measure. Evaluators have to gain understanding of the roots of a conflict, surrounding events, histories, and cultures. Discussed is the concept of culturally responsive evaluation (CRE). A pipeline program, which supports graduate students from traditionally underrepresented population groups in acquiring CRE skills through apprenticeship learning, seminars, and mentorship, is described. The work of 2 program participants, who evaluated programs–1 serving survivors of torture and the other children of refugees–are given as examples. [More] Descriptors: Graduate Students, Conflict, Social Influences, Minority Groups

Schwinn, Steven D. (2011). Video Games and the First Amendment: "Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association", Social Education. Video games today give players an unprecedented opportunity to become part of the game. They literally put players in the game. And with rapid technological improvements and endless creativity, games are only becoming more realistic. They are also becoming more violent. Today's games allow players to kill, maim, dismember, and torture victims by the dozens in every imaginable way. There is substantial evidence that these games can cause children psychological harm. Based on this evidence, the California legislature banned the sale or rental of violent video games to minors and required their packaging to be labeled "18." Through this article, students will explore the nuances of the First Amendment through a recent Supreme Court ruling that reversed a California court's ban on the sale of violent video games to minors. [More] Descriptors: Video Games, Constitutional Law, Children, Youth

Halvorsen, Joar Overaas; Kagee, Ashraf (2010). Predictors of Psychological Sequelae of Torture among South African Former Political Prisoners, Journal of Interpersonal Violence. The present study investigated potential predictors of the psychological sequelae of torture among 143 former political activists who had been detained during the apartheid era in South Africa. Using multiple regression analyses, the authors found that the number of times detained for political reasons, negative social support, strong religiousness, female gender, and number of days detained significantly predicted psychological distress and symptoms of traumatization as measured by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (adjusted R[superscript 2] = 0.183) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (adjusted R[superscript 2] = 0.152). The number of times detained for political reasons, negative social support, strong religiousness, and female gender emerged as salient risk factors for psychological distress, whereas duration of imprisonment appeared to protect against posttraumatic symptoms. This article discusses these results in terms of the current research on factors associated with traumatization. [More] Descriptors: Institutionalized Persons, Predictor Variables, Risk, Violence

Marotta, Sylvia A. (2003). Unflinching Empathy: Counselors and Tortured Refugees, Journal of Counseling & Development. This article focuses on the impact of torture on refugees; multicultural principles relevant to treatment; and what sequenced models of trauma treatment can offer to the torture survivor. It concludes with suggestions for counselors to consider regarding acculturation, resilience, and the role of mind and body in the treatment of tortured refugees. (Contains 12 references.) Descriptors: Acculturation, Counseling Techniques, Counselor Client Relationship, Empathy

Goulding, Cathlin; Walter, Mia; Friedrich, Daniel (2013). Pedagogy, Torture, and Exhibition: A Curricular Palimpsest, Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy. In this article the authors focus on three sites in different areas of the world that share the characteristic of having been schools, prisons, concentration camps, and, in two cases, museums, sometimes in that order and on all occasions with periods of overlapping functions. The main goal of the authors will be to explore the questions that emerge when understanding those sites as curricular palimpsests; that is, as sites on which the inscription and re-inscription of seemingly disparate projects throughout a short period of time leave traces that mark the non-erasure of the past, pointing to connections that until now had remained invisible. Argentina, Haiti, and Cambodia: school, camp, and museum, three sites and three ways of teaching, three curricula and a spatial-temporal palimpsest that speaks to us about learning through the body. These sites make visible a different kind of knowing, one that cannot be erased and that is inscribed in blood as much as in ink and text. [More] Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Citizenship, Educational Facilities, Museums

Kozlowski, Karen Phelan; Warber, Kathleen M. (2010). A Typology of Retaliation Strategies against Social Aggression among Adolescent Girls, Journal of Ethnographic & Qualitative Research. Girls respond to peer attacks of indirect social aggression in various ways. This study explores when and how victims retaliate against their aggressors. Qualitative interviews with 15 adolescent girls ages 10-16 suggest that victims of social aggression are likely to retaliate when their aggressors communicate the following: identity attacks, friendship destabilization, boyfriend jealousy, family attacks, insecurity attacks, and secret exposure. Based on the behaviors participants reported in response to these topics, we developed a typology of retaliation strategies girls employ. Strategies include truth coalition, face-to-face confrontation, faux confrontation, canceling the friendship, gossip, cold shoulder, physical violence, rumors, nonverbal cues, picking teams, and specialized torture. Results suggest that volatility of certain topics and retaliation strategies may vary by socioeconomic status; that girls may employ more direct forms of conflict resolution than previous research has indicated; and that the nature of retaliation against social aggression is complex, contextual, and cyclic. [More] Descriptors: Cues, Violence, Aggression, Females

Gorard, Stephen (2010). Serious Doubts about School Effectiveness, British Educational Research Journal. This paper considers the model of school effectiveness (SE) currently dominant in research, policy and practice in England (although the concerns it raises are international). It shows, principally through consideration of initial and propagated error, that SE results cannot be relied upon. By considering the residual difference between the predicted and obtained score for all pupils in any phase of education, SE calculations leave the results to be disproportionately made up of relative error terms. Adding contextual information confuses, but does not help this situation. Having shown and illustrated the sensitivity of SE to this propagation of initial errors, and therefore why it is unworkable, the paper considers some of the reasons why SE has become dominant, outlines the damage this dominant model causes and begins to shape alternative ways of considering what schools do. Numbers are like people; torture them enough and they will tell you anything. [More] Descriptors: School Effectiveness, Foreign Countries, Scores, Educational Policy

Adhihetty, T. J. (2010). Even Wars Have Laws: Upholding an American Tradition, Social Education. Since the founding of this nation, Americans have lived by the belief that wars have laws. Even in the most morally-challenging times, the principles of international humanitarian law (IHL)–which provide basic protections for the vulnerable, such as civilians, prisoners of war, and sick and injured combatants–have been championed by leaders like George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Such principles can serve as a guide today in addressing difficult questions like the treatment of detainees and the issue of torture. The United States has a rich history of promoting and upholding humanitarian principles. Those who have defended this country and many who serve in the country's leadership know the importance of IHL. It is now up to the next generation to learn about and respect these principles to ensure that this important tradition is carried on. [More] Descriptors: United States History, War, Sensory Experience, Pain

Mayo, Peter (2012). Recuperating Democratic Spaces in an Age of Militarisation and a "New Fascism", Policy Futures in Education. This essay provides a comprehensive overview of Henry Giroux's contribution over the years to critical thinking in education and beyond. It focuses primarily on Giroux's recent works concerning the changing nature of the State (from the social to the carceral and neoliberal state), the war against youth and children, the culture of militarisation, torture, the emergence of a "new fascism", the corporatisation of schools and higher education and the need for intellectuals to extend their work beyond the confines of academia to engage as public intellectuals, as well as the roles of critical pedagogy and cultural studies in this regard. The article draws on a range of writings, including both academic and more "public" writings from such outlets as "Truthout and Counterpunch". While much of what is written presents a bleak picture of the current international socio-economic scenario, Giroux's work is infused with a sense of hope and agency. It is inspired by a view of a world not as it is now but as it can and should be. [More] Descriptors: Recognition (Achievement), Critical Theory, Neoliberalism, Commercialization

Cairo, Aminata; Sumney, Diane; Blackman, Jill; Joyner, Katie (2012). F.A.C.E. Time (Families and Communities Educating): Accommodating Newcomers in Elementary School, Multicultural Education. In American public schools refugees from overseas and Latino migrant children typically find themselves in English learning programs, usually designated as English as a Second Language (ESL), Limited English Proficiency (LEP), or English Language Learners (ELL) programs. Often, these children have received little, interrupted, or no prior education. In addition, many of these children have experienced traumatic events that may have included violence, torture, refugee settlement, war atrocities, and persecution, as well as many other direct and indirect unsettling experiences. The backgrounds and experiences of these children are not homogenous and each can span a wide range, but one thing they all have in common is loss of family, home, and identity. Furthermore, their families experience an extraordinary amount of stress when adjusting to a new country and community. All of these factors can have significant emotional impact on these children who are already trying to cope with their own stressors while adapting in general to school and life in America. Subsequently, this particular ESL population has specific needs beyond language and academic adjustment. In this article, the authors will highlight a program called F.A.C.E. Time, which stands for Families and Communities Educating, which has been implemented in Lexington, Kentucky elementary schools since 2008. F.A.C.E. Time is a support program for refugee and Latino immigrant children and their families that was developed in collaboration with the Fayette County School System and the University of Kentucky. [More]  [More] Descriptors: English Language Learners, Refugees, Hispanic American Students, Migrant Children

Rose, Emily (2011). Bridging the Information Gap: American Youth Perceptions on Torture and Civilian Protection, Social Education. A recent survey commissioned by the American Red Cross about the attitudes of the post-9/11 generation toward the Geneva Conventions reveals that 59% of youth, compared with 51% of adults, believe that torturing the enemy is always or sometimes acceptable. The Geneva Conventions are at the core of international humanitarian law (IHL) and protect civilians, allow safe passage of the wounded and sick, and prohibit torture and inhumane treatment of prisoners during armed conflicts. Survey findings show that, in many cases, youth are more likely than adults to support illegal actions in times of war. This is particularly true regarding the treatment of prisoners, who must be given certain protections under the Geneva Conventions. The contradiction between the desire to learn more and support for illegal acts in war can reasonably be attributed to a gap in information. Teaching students about the rules of international humanitarian law and the principle of respect for human dignity will prepare them to become responsible global citizens and leaders. [More] Descriptors: Terrorism, Crime, International Law, Human Dignity

Schmidt, Jakob Zeuthen; Zachariae, Robert (2009). PTSD and Impaired Eye Expression Recognition: A Preliminary Study, Journal of Loss and Trauma. This preliminary study examined whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was related to difficulties in identifying the mental states of others in a group of refugees. Sixteen Bosnian refugees, referred to treatment in an outpatient treatment center for survivors of torture and war-related trauma in Denmark (CETT), were compared to 16 non-PTSD Bosnian refugees and 50 non-PTSD Danish volunteers. PTSD was assessed by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and a clinical interview, and the ability to identify mental states was tested using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (revised version) (Eyes Test). PTSD was found to be associated with lower scores on the Eyes Test, supporting the hypothesis that PTSD is related to an impaired ability to recognize displays of mental states as expressed by the eyes. We discuss the limitations of the study and implications for future research and therapeutic strategies. [More] Descriptors: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Foreign Countries, Refugees, Clinics

Gonzalez, Roberto J. (2007). We Must Fight the Militarization of Anthropology, Chronicle of Higher Education. When students take introductory courses in cultural anthropology, they learn the techniques necessary for understanding daily life in peasant villages or among bands of hunter-gatherers. Professors teach them about the importance of building rapport with informants, the insights gained from cultural immersion, and the benefits of linguistic fluency. Students rarely learn that today a small but growing number of Central Intelligence Agency, Defense Department, and State Department officials and contractors are promoting militarized versions of the same techniques as key elements of the "war on terror." Military and intelligence agents seem to be particularly interested in applying academic knowledge to interrogation and counterinsurgency efforts in the Middle East and Central Asia, and at the U.S. detention facility at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Recent events have dramatically demonstrated that anthropological and other scholarly information is a potentially valuable intelligence tool. History shows that such information can easily be misused when put into the wrong hands. Kanhong Lin, a graduate student at American University, along with this author, crafted a resolution opposing torture and the use of anthropological knowledge as an element of torture and brought to the annual meeting of the anthropology association, where it was unanimously adopted. Although academic resolutions are not likely to transform U.S. government policies, they do articulate a set of values and ethical concerns shared by many scholars. Those who have adopted them hope that the recent resolutions will extend and amplify dialogue among anthropologists–and others–around issues of torture, the "war on terror," and the potential abuse of social-science knowledge. [More] Descriptors: Anthropology, National Security, Cultural Awareness, Social Science Research

Glenn, David (2009). "Torture Memos" vs. Academic Freedom, Chronicle of Higher Education. When people gathered last May for the commencement ceremony at the University of California at Berkeley's Boalt Hall School of Law, they were greeted by chanting activists from the National Lawyers Guild and other left-wing groups. The university, protesters shouted, should fire John C. Yoo, a tenured professor who has taught at the law school since 1993. While on leave at the U.S. Justice Department's Office of Legal Counsel between 2001 and 2003, Mr. Yoo drafted what have come to be known as the "torture memos"–a series of secret memoranda that gave benediction to President George W. Bush's interrogation and surveillance policies. Some scholars believe that Mr. Yoo's memoranda were so shoddy that they amounted to professional misconduct. At the center of the storm sits Christopher Edley Jr., dean of Boalt Hall, who is fielding anxious phone calls from faculty members and students. If the Justice Department's review includes serious allegations, Mr. Edley says, the university might be justified in formally reviewing Mr. Yoo's extracurricular activities. Such a move very likely would be triggered by the universitywide Academic Senate; the dean cannot initiate it. Mr. Edley emphasizes that he is speaking hypothetically, and he says that any punishment need not necessarily include revocation of tenure. The university's rules allow far milder sanctions, including written censure and a reduction in salary. According to several accounts, some students have recently begun to shun Mr. Yoo's classes. But other students, even on the left, say that Mr. Yoo is a very strong teacher, and they support Mr. Edley's view that the university should wait for the Justice Department's report before taking any action. [More] Descriptors: College Faculty, Law Schools, Lawyers, Leaves of Absence

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