Bibliography: Torture (page 1 of 9)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the Positive Universe: On Torture website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Mladen Loncar, Gregory Hooks, Clayton Mosher, Pero Hrabac, Yunus Yildiz, Jane McPherson, Esther Lezra, Joshua B. Hooberman, Allen Keller, and Aaron Cooley.

Handelsman, Mitchell M. (2017). A Teachable Ethics Scandal, Teaching of Psychology. In this article, I describe a recent scandal involving collusion between officials at the American Psychological Association (APA) and the U.S. Department of Defense, which appears to have enabled the torture of detainees at the Guantanamo Bay detention facility. The scandal is a relevant, complex, and engaging case that teachers can use in a variety of courses. Details of the scandal exemplify a number of psychological concepts, including obedience, groupthink, terror management theory, group influence, and motivation. The scandal can help students understand several factors that make ethical decision-making difficult, including stress, emotions, and cognitive factors such as loss aversion, anchoring, framing, and ethical fading. I conclude by exploring some parallels between the current torture scandal and the development of APA's ethics guidelines regarding the use of deception in research. [More] Descriptors: Ethics, Professional Associations, Psychology, Public Officials

Hooberman, Joshua B.; Rosenfeld, Barry; Lhewa, Dechen; Rasmussen, Andrew; Keller, Allen (2007). Classifying the Torture Experiences of Refugees Living in the United States, Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Few research studies have systematically categorized the types of torture experienced around the world. The purpose of this study is to categorize the diverse traumatic events that are defined as torture, and determine how these torture types relate to demographics and symptom presentation. Data for 325 individuals were obtained through a retrospective review of records from the Bellevue/NYU for Survivors of Torture. A factor analysis generated a model with five factors corresponding to witnessing torture of others, torture of family members, physical beating, rape/sexual assault, and deprivation/passive torture. These factors were significantly correlated with a number of demographic variables (sex, education, and region of origin). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, anxiety, and depression symptoms were significantly correlated with the rape factor but no other factors were uniquely associated with psychological distress. The results offer insight into the nature of torture and differences in responses. [More] Descriptors: Refugees, Mental Health, Classification, Demography

Mikoski, Gordon S. (2009). Teaching against Torture: Sacramental Catechesis in Exceptional Circumstances, Religious Education. The ongoing crisis concerning torture and cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment of prisoners by U.S. personnel or under U.S. auspices in the "War on Terror" raises issues central to the identity of both church and society. The practice of torture cries out for practical theological reflection inasmuch as it threatens to eviscerate the moral integrity of both American Christian churches and the nation as a whole. Serious practical theological attention needs to be paid to the challenges of teaching youth and adults in mainline Protestant congregations in ways that will move them from awareness to action around the issues raised by the torture crisis. [More] Descriptors: Sensory Experience, Pain, Mental Disorders, Systems Approach

Cook, Katrina (2008). The Movie "The Secret Life of Words:" Implications for Counselors, Journal of Creativity in Mental Health. Torture still occurs at an alarming rate in the world today. Because many torture victims suffer silently in isolation instead of seeking help for their symptoms of posttraumatic stress, it is impossible to know how many lives have been impacted. However, as more and more torture victims seek asylum in countries such as the United States, counselors must be willing and able to work with this diverse population. By telling the story of Hanna, a torture victim, the movie "The Secret Life of Words" invites viewers to be present with another person's pain. This article invites counselors to recognize the healing power of relationships. Relational-Cultural Therapy and the technique of testimony are explored as viable approaches with torture survivors. [More] Descriptors: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Films, Counseling Techniques, Empathy

Huggins, Mike (2016). Stigma Is the Origin of Bullying, Journal of Catholic Education. Bullying in schools has escalated far beyond childhood teasing. In recent years, torture, murder, and suicide have been associated with bullying (van der Kolk, Weisaeth, & McFarlane, 2007). While bullying is unacceptable behavior in any school, it is particularly problematic in Catholic schools, which must embody Gospel values. Catholic education rests upon essential foundations, three of which include a Christian understanding of what constitutes humanity, finds expression in community formed through communion and essential relationship, and is itself exemplified and sustained by a Gospel witness (Miller, 2006). This article draws from national news stories about court cases related to bullying in Catholic schools. It explores the notion of bullying as a result of stigmatization and uses the extended example of diabetes as a cause for stigma. It concludes with recommendations for Catholic school leaders to address bullying in schools. [More] Descriptors: Social Bias, Negative Attitudes, Bullying, Stereotypes

Jamalinesari, Ali; Feilinezhad, Nabieh (2015). Mental Self-Exploration in Samuel Beckett's "Molloy": A Jungian Approach, Advances in Language and Literary Studies. Samuel Beckett is categorized as an absurdist dramatist. Martin Esslin in his book "The Theatre of Absurd," states that absurdist writers dealt with the theme of man's sense of anguish and torture caused by living without any purpose. All characters of Beckett's dramas are deformed just like Molloy who deteriorates as the novel comes to an end. Actually, Beckett's characters are wanderers who try to establish a sense of meaning for their existence; they are in search of self. As his works represent, Beckett uses Jungian archetypes in order to show the aspect of self. This article tries to demonstrate the lack of identity in "Molloy's" Characters in the light of Jungian archetypes throughout the story. [More] Descriptors: Novels, Identification (Psychology), Twentieth Century Literature, Self Actualization

Gregory Hooks; Clayton Mosher (2005). Outrages Against Personal Dignity: Rationalizing Abuse and Torture in the War on Terror, Social Forces. The outrage over revelations of torture and abuse at Abu Ghraib prison has faded from public discourse, but a number of questions remain unanswered. This paper criticizes official rationalizations offered for the abuse. We make the case that these abuses are systemic, resulting from dehumanization of the enemy and the long reliance on and refinement of torture by the United States national security agencies. We also consider the spread of torture in the current war "on terror," and we call on sociologists to become involved in the study of torture and prisoner abuse. [More] Descriptors: Correctional Institutions, National Security, Institutionalized Persons, Terrorism

Loncar, Mladen; Henigsberg, Neven; Hrabac, Pero (2010). Mental Health Consequences in Men Exposed to Sexual Abuse during the War in Croatia and Bosnia, Journal of Interpersonal Violence. In the research project on sexual abuse of men during the war in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, detailed information from 60 victims of such crimes was gathered. The aim of the research was to define key attributes of sexual abuse of men in war as well as consequences it had on the victims. A method of structured interview was used. Also, the statement of each victim was recorded. Victims were exposed to physical torture of their genitals, psycho-sexual torture and physical abuse. The most common symptoms of traumatic reactions were sleep disturbances, concentration difficulties, nightmares and flashbacks, feelings of hopelessness, and different physical stress symptoms such as constant headaches, profuse sweating, and tachycardia. In addition to rape and different methods of sexual abuse, most of the victims were heavily beaten. The conclusion is made that the number of sexually abused men during the war must have been much higher than reported. [More] Descriptors: Sexual Abuse, Sleep, Interviews, Foreign Countries

Lezra, Esther (2014). A Pedagogy of Empathy for a World of Atrocity, Review of Education, Pedagogy & Cultural Studies. An act of atrocity is an act of violence that is perceived to exceed the boundaries of what a legitimate punitive measure–either against an individual or a collective group of people-would be for retribution for the unjust infliction of an injury. Atrocities are enacted, experienced, witnessed, and translated. They take multiple forms. What makes an act of violence an act of atrocity (rather than a pain-ridden event such as a death by accident, sudden disease, or other uncontrollable natural events) is not only the element of deliberation behind it, but also the affective horror and the poetics of disavowal that the act generates in its documentation and dissemination. Such acts do not disappear with mourning or grief, but exceed any sort of narrative of closure or containment. At the core of what Jameson has called the "hurts of history," these acts circulate through time space and across cultures, from past to present, from distant imagined objects of study onto the screens, whiteboards, and transparencies of classrooms. The study of torture, atrocity, and other forms of calculated violence is necessary to disrupt the senseless and yet somehow timeless myths of modernity and enlightened subjectivity that infuse classrooms, it demands that we take a closer look. Some of the questions the author points toward in this article include: (1) How does the study of historical terror and torture throw light upon the political and cultural dynamics of spectatorship, witnessing, and complicity that still function to support global violence and terror today? (2) How do educators bring these pressing issues ethically and empathetically into the classroom? The writers and artists whose representations are studied here all have witnessed and meticulously recorded horrific instances of human atrocity. Is the one who witnesses and records the violence simply a medium through which the violence is remembered, or are they an agent reproducing the violence? [More] Descriptors: Empathy, Teaching Methods, Violence, History

Pellegrinelli, Lara (2009). Scholarly Discord, Chronicle of Higher Education. Even with President Barack Obama's promises to close the Guantanamo Bay detention camp and withdraw troops from Iraq, the subject of torture keeps making the news. With all that detainees have had to endure during their incarcerations–the recent memos detail stress positions, cramped confinement, and waterboarding, among other tactics–perhaps what has attracted the least attention is music torture. As early as 2003, the BBC reported that during interrogations the U.S. Army had exposed detainees for prolonged periods to loud music, including Metallica's "Enter Sandman" and "I Love You," the popular children's song by Barney the dinosaur. The use of music torture has provoked little public outcry, perhaps because the prospect of hours spent listening to Barney sounds more like a bad joke than anything truly harmful. Suzanne Cusick, a professor of music at New York University, says the single most important reason behind the dismissal of music torture can be simply explained: "We who care about music have not yet adequately answered the question, "Isn't it better than breaking their legs?"" Since 2006, Cusick has published two journal articles on the theory and practice of music as torture. Along with hooding, wall standing, sleep deprivation, and erratic provision of food and drink, music torture counts among the commonly cited techniques designed to extract information without leaving physical evidence. An active military conflict might seem like odd territory for a musicologist. As a matter of fact, Cusick's work is unusual. While political scientists, anthropologists, historians, and those in media studies have engaged in the debates surrounding Iraq and the war on terrorism–both in and outside the academy–responses from music scholars have been comparatively few, slow, and circumscribed. Whatever kind of difference the work of scholars like Cusick makes, it may take a radical new, new musicology–one that looks more like the work of public intellectuals who equip themselves to participate in broader dialogues–to fully deal with the complexities of contemporary politics going forward into the 21st century. [More] Descriptors: Foreign Countries, War, Violence, Music

Lantz, Melanie M.; Fix, Rebecca L.; Davis, Brittan L.; Harrison, Leighna N.; Oliver, Ashley; Crowell, Candice; Mitchell, Amanda M.; García, James J. (2016). Grad Students Talk: Development and Process of a Student-Led Social Justice Initiative, Journal of Diversity in Higher Education. College student activism has long been a staple of campus life, often driven by the sociopolitical issues of the time. In response to recent and continuous violent deaths of members of the Black community, rising instances of overt racism, and perceived silence among our institutes and professional groups, a multiinstitutional and diverse collective of psychology graduate student leaders, Grad Students Talk (GST) came together to engage psychology graduate students nationally in discussions related to these events. GST facilitated a series of teleconference calls, and one large in-person conference discussion, for psychology graduate students to discuss and process their reactions to acts of racial injustice. Additionally, GST headed "First, Do No Harm," an advocacy campaign against psychologists' involvement in torture, which received mention in national media. The purpose of the current paper is to describe the successes of our student collective, to understand the challenges GST faced in the context of activism within higher education, and to provide recommendations to professionals in higher education to support student activism initiatives. Data from a collaborative autoethnographic qualitative approach highlighted a number of important themes that emerged for researcher-participants, including lack of perceived safety, observed silence from institutions and professional groups, and the important roles of universality and instillation of hope. We conclude the present discourse with a synthesis of the systemic challenges student activists face, and recommendations for change. [More] Descriptors: Graduate Students, Social Justice, Activism, Racial Bias

Cooley, Aaron (2009). Is Education a Lost Cause? Zizek, Schooling, and Universal Emancipation, Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education. This paper discusses the work of Slavoj Zizek and links several of his ideas to educational contexts. After giving a brief background on his unique intellectual perspective, I pull three themes (control, torture, and politics) from his body of work, and I consider their educational connections and implications. I conclude by speculating on the future use of Zizek's work to educational philosophy and educational studies. [More] Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Educational Policy, Educational Philosophy, Educational Theories

Faúndez, Ximena; Goecke, Ximena (2015). Psychosocial Trauma Transmission and Appropriation in Grandchildren of Former Political Prisoners of the Civic–Military Dictatorship in Chile (1973-1990), Journal of Social Science Education. This article introduces and discusses a research which sought to comprehend, through the analysis of the narratives of the grandchildren of victims of the Civic-Military Dictatorship in Chile, the phenomena of transgenerational psychosocial trauma. The research involved 14 grandchildren of former political prisoners (FPP), between 18 and 25 years old, both from the Metropolitan Region of Chile and from the Araucanía Region. It considered life story as the productive technique, and applied a narrative analysis to the sample collected. The results of this study allow us to state that the life story of the grandchildren of FPP is included in a logic of transgenerational transmission and appropriation of the psychosocial trauma. Which implies that inside the families of FPP still persists the avoidance and silence dynamic around the torture's experience, determining the relationship of the grandchildren with the traumatic experience. Also, the results show that there are important gendered features to take into consideration while listening to the narratives of transgenerational transmission. [More] Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Victims, Trauma, Political Issues

Yildiz, Yunus (2015). Better Education at Ishik University Preparatory School with Extracurricular Activities, Advances in Language and Literary Studies. It cannot be said that education today in institutions is better than the previous century. Because in the past, students' minds were not as full of time-consuming things like spending enormous time in front of a computer or a television as today. Subsequently, teachers used to concentrate their job well and students used to focus on the study better because there was nothing serious except studying. On the other hand, it can be said that the youth today are not as eager to learn as yesterday. Because of the fact that they are economically free and supported, they do not worry about failing in the exams supposing that they can possess the questions somehow easily and pass the exams. As a result, they think that whatever they want, they can simply gain without pain. Doing homework or extra studies are a torture from students' perspective. As lecturers we have to find many more tactics to motivate students in this education era. Hence, extracurricular activities might play a great role for motivating them to study and on their study achievement if they are used in institutions effectively. In my research article educators' observations and extracurricular activities' positive impact on weak language learners will be mentioned. [More] Descriptors: Extracurricular Activities, Student Motivation, Student Attitudes, Role

McPherson, Jane (2012). Does Narrative Exposure Therapy Reduce PTSD in Survivors of Mass Violence?, Research on Social Work Practice. Purpose: This review examines the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy (NET) , a short-term intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors of mass violence and torture, who have often suffered multiple traumas over several years. Methods: Randomized control trials were reviewed if they measured PTSD outcome and were published in English-language, peer-reviewed journals since 2000. Eight studies reviewed here report results with 482 diverse participants, including Sri Lankan children, Rwandan orphans, adult African refugees, and elderly Romanian prisoners. Results: NET produces a significant decrease in PTSD as compared to other treatments, waitlist, or treatment as usual (TAU). Study strengths include treatment fidelity, use of standard measures, and experimental design. Applications to Practice: Preliminary evidence supports use of NET; evidence may be strengthened by larger trials, independent researchers, and further attention to blinding. Social workers who are concerned with refugee mental health should be trained to use effective methods. [More] Descriptors: Research Design, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Therapy, Social Work

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *