Bibliography: Crimes Against Humanity (page 1 of 2)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the Positive Universe: On Torture website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, Facing History and Ourselves, Karen Hovde, Katy Benedetto, Lucien Ellington, Richard Byrne, Pauline Wakeham, Y. Waghid, Hyunduk Kim, and Alexandra Lamb.

Ellington, Lucien (2011). Economics in History: What Every High School Student and Teacher Needs to Know. Footnotes. Volume 15, Number 8, Foreign Policy Research Institute. Historians work in a discipline with few inherent concepts and are obliged to draw upon many fields in recreating the past. Yet authors of most school history texts, state and national standards and curriculum materials seldom incorporate economic analysis in their work. Just look at state standards that include Adam Smith and John Locke but draw no connections between their economic thought and contemporary institutions, to world history texts that treat the British Industrial Revolution as a virtual crime against humanity. This essay's objective is to integrate an economic perspective into five common topics that are taught, depending upon the course, in every world or U.S. history survey class; Ancient Greece and Rome, Imperial China, Colonial English America, the British Industrial Revolution, and the U.S. depression of the 1930s. An annotated list of pedagogical resources for topics is also included along with general resources. [More] Descriptors: Foreign Countries, World History, Economic Research, State Standards

Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove (2009). What Can TESOL Do in Order Not to Participate in Crimes against Humanity?, TESOL Quarterly: A Journal for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages and of Standard English as a Second Dialect. Subtractive education through the medium of a dominant language often transfers Indigenous and minority (IM) children to the dominant group linguistically and culturally within one or two generations. It may lead to the extinction of Indigenous languages, thus contributing to the disappearance of the world's linguistic diversity. A partial result of this extinction can be the disappearance of the knowledge about biodiversity and its maintenance and, through this, diminishing prerequisites for human life on earth. Linguistic diversity and biodiversity are correlationally and causally related. Most of the world's megabiodiversity is in areas under the management or guardianship of Indigenous peoples. Most of the world's linguistic diversity resides in the small languages of Indigenous peoples. Much of the detailed knowledge of how to maintain biodiversity is encoded in their languages. Through killing them people kill the prerequisites for maintaining biodiversity. If people continue as now, most of the world's Indigenous languages will be gone by 2100. When states, including the United States, refuse to grant Indigenous peoples and (both "national" and immigrated) minorities an unconditional right to the most decisive linguistic human right in education, the right to be educated mainly in one's own language in a non-fee state school, they are seriously harming both the children concerned and the planet. What can TESOL do in order not to participate in crimes against humanity? In this article, the author suggests that both Indigenous and minority education could be organized so as to promote high levels of multilingualism. This would give better results in terms of school achievement, learning of the dominant language, and issues around identity. In addition, not even the initial short-term costs would be more than a few percent higher, and in the long term, mainly mother-tongue medium education would lead to considerable savings, including eliminating much of the "illiteracy" of tens of millions of children, and today's educational wastage. [More] Descriptors: State Schools, Indigenous Populations, Academic Achievement, Illiteracy

Stevick, E. Doyle (2010). Education Policy as Normative Discourse and Negotiated Meanings: Engaging the Holocaust in Estonia, Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education. This article uses a socio-cultural approach to analyze the formation and implementation of Estonia's Holocaust Day Policy, a day of both commemoration for victims of the Holocaust and other crimes against humanity, and education about the Holocaust. It investigates both the multi-level development of the policy in light of external pressure (from foreign advocates and transnational groups including NATO and the Council of Europe) and the ways in which policy as normative discourse was constructed and its meanings negotiated between international sources, the national government, and educators. It draws attention to the multifaceted nature of discourse in a post-authoritarian context where power disparities further complicate an already complex trans-national policy environment. [More] Descriptors: Jews, Foreign Countries, Educational Policy, Social Bias

Bromley, Patricia; Russell, Susan Garnett (2010). The Holocaust as History and Human Rights: A Cross-National Analysis of Holocaust Education in Social Science Textbooks, 1970-2008, Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education. This article examines Holocaust education in secondary school social science textbooks around the world since 1970, using data coded from 465 textbooks from 69 countries. It finds that books and countries more connected to world society and with an accompanying emphasis on human rights, diversity in society and a depiction of international, rather than national, society are more likely to discuss the Holocaust. Additionally, textbooks from Western countries contain more discussion of the Holocaust, although the rate is increasing in Eastern European and other non-Western countries, suggesting eventual convergence. We also find a shift in the nature of discussion, from a historical event to a violation of human rights or crime against humanity. These findings broadly support the arguments of neo-institutional theories that the social and cultural realms of the contemporary world are increasingly globalized and that notions of human rights are a central feature of world society. [More] Descriptors: Civil Rights, Textbooks, Social Sciences, Death

Kim, Hyunduk (2012). Teaching about the Korean Comfort Women, Social Education. During World War II, human rights violations against women took on gargantuan proportions of indescribable horror. The Japanese military engaged in the systematic abduction of women from China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and other nations and confined them to military installations in Japanese-occupied territories to serve as sexual slaves. The Korean "We Ahn Boo" or "Comfort Women" were mostly uneducated, sexually inexperienced teenagers from rural areas who were taken from families, schools, and rice fields either by force or on the promise of work in factories. In order to educate future generations about crimes against humanity, for effective global citizenship, the topic of comfort women in both Korea and Japan has been addressed intermittently in history textbooks since the beginning of the 1990s. This topic can be presented in social education social education classes whose students are of an appropriate age for discussion and writing. [More] Descriptors: Females, Civil Rights, Rural Areas, Foreign Countries

Wakeham, Pauline (2012). Reconciling "Terror": Managing Indigenous Resistance in the Age of Apology, American Indian Quarterly. If recent years have witnessed the rise of a worldwide phenomenon of reconciliation and apology, so also in the past few decades, and with increasing force since September 11, 2001, the global forum has seen the increased mediatization of spectacles of terror. The present moment is thus characterized by two seemingly contradictory rubrics: the "age of apologies" and the "War on Terror." While political and critical discourses have tended to bifurcate discussion of these two contemporaneous phenomena, the author argues that they are intimately interconnected. At the same time that governments and tribunals are reinscribing liberal humanist principles in their quest to find redemption from violence and to reaffirm a commitment to justice and peace–those concepts that seem to be the foundation of reconciliation processes–new crimes against humanity are being legitimated under the banner of "just war" and uncannily similar discourses regarding the spread of democracy and the upholding of global peace. This article examines the complex intersections between the age of apologies and the War on Terror and the political ramifications of these intertwined–rather than discrete–phenomena. In particular, this essay is concerned with the implications of the conjuncture of discourses of reconciliation and terror for Indigenous peoples in settler states such as New Zealand and Canada. Through case studies of recent events in New Zealand and Canada, the author analyzes how reconciliation and terror may converge in ways that collapse the differences between a spectrum of Indigenous anticolonial resistance practices and strip them of their historical and political specificity. [More] Descriptors: Indigenous Populations, Racial Discrimination, Foreign Countries, Democracy

Shei, Chi-Chiang (2008). Discovering the Hidden Treasure on the Internet: Using Google to Uncover the Veil of Phraseology, Computer Assisted Language Learning. Formulaic speech has been notoriously difficult to define and identify despite its crucial importance to native-like fluency and idiomaticity. In this article, I introduce a way of identifying phraseological units in a running text. I am interested in recurrent fragments like "charged with crimes against humanity" in texts which involve multiple word collocations in a "fuzzily fixed" lexico-syntactic frame. I suspect these kind of phraseological fragments not only add to the fluency and idiomaticity of texts, save text production time, but actually constitute milestones in the generation of text and sentences. No currently well known corpus seems large enough to provide adequate instances of prefabricated chunks like this for closer investigation. It is proposed here that Internet as a gigantic corpus and a search engine like Google can help identify and retrieve these phraseological units for linguistic research and language teaching and learning. [More] Descriptors: Sentences, Search Engines, Internet, Language Teachers

Facing History and Ourselves (2004). Crimes Against Humanity and Civilization. Facing History and Ourselves is a nonprofit educational organization whose mission is to engage students of diverse backgrounds in an examination of racism, prejudice, and antisemitism in order to promote a more humane and informed citizenry. As the name Facing History and Ourselves implies, the organization helps teachers and their students make the essential connections between history and the moral choices they confront in their own lives by examining the development and lessons of the Holocaust and other examples of genocide. It is a study that helps young people think critically about their own behavior and the effect that their actions have on their community, nation, and the world. It is based on the belief that no classroom should exist in isolation. Facing History programs and materials involve the entire community: students, parents, teachers, civic leaders, and other citizens. The Chapters are listed in the Table of Contents as follows: Chapter I, Identity and History; Contains: What's in a name?; Multiple Identities; Am I Armenian?; and Generations. Chapter II, We and They; Contains: The Ottoman Armenians; Iron Ladles for Liberty Stew; Organizing for Change; Humanity on Trial; The Sultan Responds; Seeking Civil Rights; Humanitarian Intervention; Showdown at Bank Ottoman; and The Rise of the Young Turks. Chapter III, The Young Turks in Power; Contains: Bloody News from Adana; Ideology; Ideology in Action; Neighbor Turns Against Neighbor; Planning Mass Murder; and Dictating Religion. Chapter IV Genocide; Contains; Evacuation, Deportation, and Death; Under the Cover of War; The Round Ups Begin; The German Connection; Following Orders; Women and Deportations; Cries Ringing in My Ears; and Targeting the Greeks and the Assyrians. Chapter V, The Range of Choices; Contains: Remembering Rescue; Trying to Make a Difference; Official Policy; Taking a Stand; The American Ambassador in Constantinople; Talaat and the Limits of Diplomacy; They Eyes of the World; Saving the Armenians; Armenian Relief; and The Story of Aurora Mardiganian and "Ravished Armenia". Chapter VI, Who Remembers the Armenians?; Contains: A Mandate for Armenia?; Crimes Against Humanity and Civilization; War, Genocide, and Human Rights; The Armenian Republic and the New Turkey; Acquitting the Assassin; Rewriting History; The Legacy of a Witness; Remembrance and Denial; Denial, Free Speech, and Hate Speech; Demanding Justice; Meeting the Past; and The Crime of Genocide. The chapters are followed by an index. Descriptors: Death, Foreign Countries, War, Violence

Byrne, Richard (2007). Release of Archives Helps Fill Gap in Files on Wartime Atrocities, Chronicle of Higher Education. Whether it is the hunt for the last surviving perpetrators of the Holocaust, the restitution of looted artworks, or new evidence of the complicity of governments in that immense crime against humanity by Germany and its allies, U.S. public interest in European war crimes has not flagged since the end of World War II. But the war crimes committed by Japan–including biological warfare, human experimentation, and massacres–have attracted much less attention in the six decades since the war's conclusion, though events such as the publication of Iris Chang's book The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II in 1997 created spikes in public interest. This article talks about the efforts made by the Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group of filling the gap in files on wartime atrocities. [More] Descriptors: Foreign Countries, War, Crime, Federal Programs

Facing History and Ourselves (2004). Crimes Against Humanity and Civilization: The Genocide of the Armenians. While focusing on the Armenian Genocide during World War I, this book considers the many legacies of the Armenian Genocide including Turkish denial and the struggle for the recognition of genocide as a "crime against humanity." The book can be integrated into courses dealing with multiple genocides, human rights, as well as history courses covering the late 19th century and World War I as well as U.S. international relations. This book contains six chapters. Chapter one, Identity and History, contains the following readings: (1) What's in a Name?; (2) Multiple Identities; (3) Am I Armenian?; and (4) Generations. Chapter two, We and Why, contains the following readings: (1) The Ottoman Armenians; (2) Iron Ladles for Liberty Stew; (3) Organizing for Change; (4) Humanity on Trial; (5) The Sultan Responds; (6) Seeking Civil Rights; (7) Humanitarian Intervention; (8) Showdown at Bank Ottoman; and (9) The Rise of the Young Turks. Chapter three, The Young Turks in Power, contains the following readings: (1) Bloody News From Adana; (2) Ideology; (3) Ideology in Action; (4) Neighbor Turns Against Neighbor; (5) Planning Mass Murder; and (6) Dictating Religion. Chapter 4, Genocide, contains the following readings: (1) Evacuation, Deportation, and Death; (2) Under the Cover of War; (3) The Round Ups Begin; (4) The German Connection; (5) Following Orders; (6) Women and the Deportations; (7) Cries Ringing in My Ears; and (8) Targeting the Greeks and the Assyrians. Chapter 5, The Range of Choices, contains the following readings: (1) Remembering Rescue; (2) Trying to Make a Difference; (3) Official Policy; (4) Taking a Stand; (5) The American Ambassador in Constantinople; (6) Talaat and the Limits of Diplomacy; (7) The Eyes of the World; (8) Saving the Armenians; (9) Armenian Relief; (10) The Story of Aurora Mardiganian; and (11) "Ravished Armenia". Chapter 6, Who Remembers the Armenians, contains the following readings: (1) A Mandate for Armenia?; (2) Crimes Against Humanity and Civilization; (3) War, Genocide, and Human Rights; (4) The Armenian Republic and the New Turkey; (5) Acquitting the Assassin; (6) Rewriting History; (7) The Legacy of a Witness; (8) Remembrance and Denial; (9) Denial, Free Speech, and Hate Speech; (10) Demanding Justice; (11) Meeting the Past; and (12) The Crime of Genocide. An index is included. Individual readings contain notes. [More] Descriptors: Civil Rights, Crime, War, Death

Kanner, Elisabeth Fieldstone (2010). Teaching "The Reckoning": Understanding the International Criminal Court. A Facing History and Ourselves Study Guide, Facing History and Ourselves. Facing History and Ourselves has developed "Teaching The Reckoning" to help classrooms explore essential questions about judgment by studying the creation of the International Criminal Court. Ever since the Nuremberg Trials, individuals around the world have imagined how an international judicial body could be used to prevent genocide, crimes against humanity, and other violations of civil and human rights. In 2002, more than 100 nations made this vision a reality with the establishment of the International Criminal Court in The Hague. To help classrooms explore some of the successes and challenges this new court has faced, Facing History has partnered with Skylight Pictures, the producers of the film "The Reckoning: The Battle for the International Criminal Court to" create three short video modules–each one focusing on an important dilemma raised by the court related to issues of sovereignty, impunity, and peace. These resources help students confront the complexity of justice and judgment in a global context, and make connections to their own lives, by raising questions such as: "Are wrongdoers less likely to commit crimes when they think they might be caught and punished? What is justice? Does it look the same in all communities? How can individuals and nations work together to create a safer, more just community?" International Justice Glossary is included. Individual sections contain endnotes. [This guide was created to accompany film modules of "The Reckoning: The Battle for the International Criminal Court", a film by Skylight Pictures.] [More] Descriptors: Punishment, Court Litigation, Courts, Institutional Role

Cultural Survival (2008). Observations on the State of Indigenous Human Rights in Light of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: Guatemala. Since the 1996 Peace Accords ended the Guatemalan civil war, the country has made strides to legally recognize the rights of its indigenous peoples and has criminalized racial discrimination. However, political exclusion, discrimination, and economic marginalization of indigenous peoples still regularly occur due to the lack of resources and political will to stop them. Precarious land tenure, delays in land restitution, disproportionately extreme poverty, and geographical remoteness result in indigenous Guatemalans having less access to healthcare, clean water, and security, and lower living standards than the country's "Ladino" population. Most indigenous children do not have access to bilingual education. Many crimes against indigenous peoples are not investigated or go unpunished; by comparison, indigenous leaders are frequently attacked or prosecuted for defending their claims to their lands. The government needs to energetically address discrimination, and to take steps to secure land rights and economic equality for its indigenous peoples. It also needs to strengthen the rule of law and increase indigenous access to effective legal remedies, and to or extradite prosecute those responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity during the country's civil war. [More] Descriptors: Cultural Maintenance, Public Health, Violence, Water Quality

Hovde, Karen (2011). War and Peace: Deconstructing the Topic of Genocide and Other Crimes against Humanity, Community & Junior College Libraries. This article examines the topic of genocide and other world conflicts as they are addressed by reference works. Topics of human aggression are treated by multidisciplinary research, and an awareness of the multiple angles of approach aids the process of directing students to sources. The article discusses definitions and standard organizational categories for this subject area, and provides reviews of reference titles for both reference services and collection development. [More] Descriptors: Aggression, Death, Reference Services, Crime

Waghid, Y. (2007). Educating for Democratic Citizenship and Cosmopolitanism, South African Journal of Higher Education. Over the past century our world has witnessed much uncertainty and ambivalence as a consequence of inhumane acts perpetrated against humanity such as murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation, persecution on political, racial or religious grounds, war crimes (mistreatment of civilians and non-combatants as well as one's enemy in combat), and genocide (through ethnic cleansing, mass executions, rape and cruel punishment of the enemy). These "crimes against humanity" once again require the emergence of norms which ought to govern relations among individuals in a global civil society (Benhabib 2006, 20). Drawing on the seminal ideas of Amy Gutmann (1996) and Seyla Benhabib (2006), I want to offer some ways democratic citizenship and cosmopolitanism can enhance the educational project of ensuring universal justice for all individuals and not just members of our own societies. Firstly, I shall argue that educating for cosmopolitanism is conditional upon the cultivation of democratic citizenship, in particular showing how democratic citizenship can help us to recognise and respect every individual's claim to justice. Secondly, I shall show how cosmopolitanism can bring about the recognition of the rights claims of human beings everywhere. [More] Descriptors: Citizenship, Democracy, Citizenship Education, Democratic Values

Benedetto, Katy; Lamb, Alexandra; Cohen, Robert (2009). The Other September 11: Teaching about the 1973 Overthrow of Chilean President Salvador Allende, Social Education. September 11, 2001, is a day most American high school students remember. They may not fully grasp the events that took place, the reasons behind the terrorist attacks on the United States, or their implications, but they remember. They were children when this national trauma occurred–and they saw those unforgettable television images of the World Trade Center exploding and the Pentagon aflame. Every fall they see somber commemorations of the September 11 attacks and the tragic loss of life left in their wake. But what few students–or other Americans–know is that long before 2001, September 11 has been a tragic historical anniversary in Latin America because it was the day that Chile's democratically elected president, Salvador Allende, was overthrown and died in a bloody coup in 1973. The coup marked the start of a dismal era for Chilean democracy because it led to more than a decade of military rule by Augusto Pinochet, whose brutal dictatorship (1973-1990) consolidated itself via crimes against humanity–the disappearance, torture, and murder of thousands of dissidents. This article and the teaching suggestions aim to provide a better understanding of Chile's September 11 by examining relevant literature, a primary source document, and essays by some of the event's witnesses (e.g., writings by Ariel Dorfman). The authors offer a teaching activity centering on one of the most revealing historical sources on the U.S. role in Allende's Chile, a declassified five-point memorandum written to President Richard Nixon on November 17, 1970, by his national security advisor, Henry Kissinger. It outlines covert measures that the U.S. government planned to use to undermine and subvert Allende's presidency, illuminating the breadth of American influence abroad and directly implicating the U.S. government in some of the chaotic events that wracked Chile in the early 1970s, which destabilized the Allende government and paved the way for the rise of Pinochet. The covert, even conspiratorial, nature of Nixon and Kissinger's actions leading up to the coup is highly engrossing, leaving students to follow and question what happened with the same rapt attention they might pay to a true crime story. [More] Descriptors: Terrorism, National Security, Democracy, Primary Sources

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